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Edexcel GCSE
History A: The Making of the Modern World
Unit 1
Section 4- How did the cold war develop? 1943-56
The Grand Alliance 1941
USSR, Britain and America
A marriage of convenience. Was only created so they could defeat the Nazis
Once Hitler was defeated Alliance became uneasy
The Tehran Conference 1943
Communist sphere of influence in Europe decided on. Sphere of influence meant an area
where communism was respected. Guaranteed that USSR was not threatened by any of its
neighbouring countries.
Equally, the in Europe, a Western sphere of influence would also be present
The future of Germany was not decided on. Stalin wanted to impose large reparations on
Germany whereas Roosevelt wanted to help rebuild Germany. He argued that a peaceful
Europe needs a prosperous Germany.
The Yalta Conference 1945
Stalin agreed to help America defeat Japan after Germany had been defeated
They agreed to set up a communist government in Poland (along with a capitalist one)
The Declaration on Liberated Europe ensured that the Big Three would work for democracy
in Europe. This caused tension because they disagreed on what democracy meant. Stalin
believed only a communist government could be democratic because communism
represented the working people. America however believed democracy meant free
They agreed to establish the UN to help maintain peace.
It was reinstated that the USSR would have a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe
The Potsdam Conference 1945
They decided that the Nazi party would be banned and all surviving Nazis would be punished
as war criminals
They also agreed to divide Germany into four zones- US, UK, USSR, FR
Disagreements over reparations. Stalin still wanted to take large reparations from Germany.
It was decided that each would take from their own zone. Stalin unhappy because he had a
poorer zone. Western allies agreed to give him one quarter of industrial equipment in return
for raw materials such as coal
The atomic bomb- This caused tension because Truman used it to boss the whole meeting.
He postponed the meeting so American scientists had long enough to make it. Stalin showed
no special interest although he was well aware of the significance. This made him more

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Eastern Europe between the USSR
and the capitalist west.
Poland ­This caused further tension because Stalin went against his word and only formed a
communist government without any capitalist influence.
One of the reasons the Grand Alliance fell was because Stalin and Roosevelt had a good relationship
and Truman- who took over after he died, was not willing to co-operate with Stalin as much a
Roosevelt.…read more

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Americans were being prepared for war
Truman Doctrine 1947
It stated:
The world had a choice between communist tyranny and democratic freedom
America had a responsibility to fight for liberty wherever it was threatened
America would send troops and economic resources to help governments that were
threatened by communism (marshall aid)
Communism should not be allowed to grow and gain territory
Significance of Truman doctrine-
Suggested that the US rather than the UN had a responsibility to protect the world.…read more

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Economically it ensured all the benefits of economic recovery remained within the soviet
Also meant that Eastern Europe did not have access to the prosperity of the West
In 1948 the western allies started to develop a policy for western Germany that was at odds with
Russia's plans.
Firstly, GB, FR, and US set up a German assembly to create a German constitution.…read more

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Hungary under Stalin
1949 Cominform imposed an oppressive regime on Hungary
Hungarian land was redistributed to other Eastern European countries
Hungarian coal, oil and wheat was shipped to the USSR whilst Hungarians were left
deprived of food
Non-communist political parties abolished
Russian officials controlled Government, Police and Army
Cominform began a reign of executing popular political leaders
Matyas Rakosi was appointed as dictator
Matyas Rakosi dictator of Hungary from 1949-56
Imprisoned 387,000 people
Responsible for more than 2000 deaths
Stalins death in 1953 was…read more

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America had encouraged uprising but not offered military help but did offer 200 million worth of
food and medical aid
UN did nothing to help…read more


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