Revision on Italian Unification Revolutions 1820s through to 1849.

Please note some pictures may only be the way I remember certain things - they might not make sense to you (probably won't make sense to anyone) Haha. Enjoy.
Good Luck! 

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  • Created by: Kelly
  • Created on: 12-05-13 20:10

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Secret Societies - Carbonari
Secret societies big part of 20's · Most important secret society
revolutions · V active in Naples ­ 60,000 members here (5% of
adult male population)
Patriotic and enthusiastic
Members: · Naples government tried stopping Carbonari but
· Army officers efforts failed ­ increasing membership
· Students · Members 100% loyal to their leaders
· Lawyers · Unlike others, not particularly anti-Catholic
· Teachers
· Doctors Aims:
· Educated · PIEDMONT- wanted constitutional monarchy ­ King
· Mostly middle class with limited power
· NAPLES- didn't want to replace king with republic
· Peasants + working class NO just wanted to persuade him to grant a constitution
Lack of organisation and lack of
willingness to work together…read more

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1820-21 Revolutions NAPLES
1818: King Ferdinand = greatly increased church's power
to censor books papers & magazines. Middle class ANGRY
cos no freedom of speech
King Ferdinand cut back public spending ­
· Haltered works e.g. on roads and harbour
· Reduced even more education accessibility
· Encouraged Carbonari and the liberals in Naples to
take action
· Priest led ­ with 100 junior officers and soldiers and 30
Carbonari members advanced on Avellino
· Government attempt to round up troops =
half ­hearted
July ­ King Ferdinand promised to set up constitution:
· Vote given to all adult males
· Limited Kings power
· Abolished many noble and religious privileges…read more

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1820-21 revolutions - Sicily
Whilst revolutions in Naples happening ­ another separate
revolution happing in Sicily (Other half of Ferdinand's
The people wants independence from Naples
1815- Sicily + Naples = forcibly united
Sicilians felt that Ferdinand's government was
concentrating on Naples and neglecting their Islands needs.
· Agricultural prices fell sharply
· Peasants got more and more into debt YAY
· Riots in Palermo (capital)
· Demands for constitution JOINED = NAY
· Government offices burnt down
· Prisoners released
· Neapolitan governor sent home by boat as
revolutionaries took over city…read more

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1820-21 revolutions
Failure in Naples & Sicily
Naples: New constitutional government
met October 1820 1921:
Members: Middle class, noble men etc ­ King met with Austria, Prussia and Russia
No peasants or women King said he'd had to grant a constitution out of
fear, asked for Metternich's help to gain absolute
Discussed Sicily's revolution: rule again.
· Decided Sicily must remain part of
Metternich = happy
the Kingdom of Naples AT ALL
COSTS March 1821
· Island must not be allowed to declare · Austrian army enters Naples
independence · Brave resistance by General Pepe
· Must be brought to heel ­ by · Arrests, imprisonments & executions = very
Napoleonic armed force if needed common
· Metternich = shocked by savagery &
Metternich = not happy that ordered dismissal of chief of police
revolution had apparently Sicily:
been so successful · Naples recovered control of Sicily
Argued Austria, Prussia and · Made future attempts of Sicily breaking
Russia should meet and if away less likely by abolishing trade guilds
needed take action to suppress whose members had been leaders of prev
such disturbances wherever they happen. revolution…read more

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1820-21 revolutions Piedmont
King = Victor Emmanuel I Liberals turned to Charles Albert
King = very reactionary since his return (2nd in line to throne) - said Spanish constitution on
He declared old constitution of 1770 1812 was a model to be followed ­ promptly
would remain and could never be appointed a new government
changed Problem: he was not the legitimate ruler
Piedmont therefore would remain and
absolute monarchy in-spite of continued VE's bro Charles Felix was 1st in line to
pressure from small group of liberals Piedmontese throne. He had been away
but soon issued statement saying
When news of what was happening in Charles Albert = rebel.
Naples reached Piedmont ­ Carbonari Felix refused any change in government
membership rapidly grew. Albert fled ­ liberals defend new
Revolutionary group in Alessandria where constitution as much as poss
they proclaimed their independence as the
`Kingdom of Italy' and declared war on · Felix appealed to Metternich
Austria · Austrian troops and those loyal to
Felix defeated the forces of the Turin
Army revolt in Turin (state liberals at the Battle of Novara 1821
capital) encouraged Victor · 100's of revolutionaries into exile
Emmanuel I to abdicate · Piedmont occupied by Austrian
army until 1823…read more

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1820-21 Revolutions
1820 1821
Success Failure
Austrian army
New constitution Naples
took control
Austria- controlled
Governor sent
Sicily Naples resumed
back to Naples
Charles Felix and
Victor Emmanuel
Piedmont Austria took
control…read more

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Awesome revision/outline presentation!!! Thank you so much for sharing this!!!!! :) 

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