HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT SUPPORTERS OF CLOSER UNITY IN ITALY HAD MADE NO POGRESS BY 1849? - The Congress of Vienna and the backward nature of Italy hindered the progress of the supporters of closer unity
HOW DID FRENCH RULE AFFECT THE ITALIAN PENINSULA?
HOW DID THE FRENCH RULE AFFECT THE ITALIANS?
THE RESULTS OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA WERE?
WHAT COMMON FACTOR WAS TAKEN WAYS AFTER 1815?
WHAT WAS RESTORED?
HOWEVER WERE ALL RESTORED MONARCHS REACTIONARY?
Napoleon made changes that simplified boundaries - split into 3 kingdoms; the Kingdom of Upper Italy; Central Italy and Lower Italy - resulted in increase in trade between states and ensured communication between states was at it's optimum
Educated Italians were inspired by French ideas - some wanted to imitate France by modernaising France and even founding a Italian nation state - however these ideas wouldn't be popular as most wanted to overthrow french dominance
Congress of Vienna meant Italy was devided back into a patchwork of states under regressive regimes, e.g. papal states (censorship increased, communication developments hindered) were the most backward and oppressive
the common factor uniting Italians - hatred towards the french was taken away - resented how their young men were forced to go to war with France and the high tax needed to fund the military
restored Campanilismo (small town mentality)
In Tuscany, Ferdinand III improved eduaction and health facilities and allowed freedom of expression
HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT SUPPORTERS OF CLOSER UNITY IN ITALY HAD MADE NO POGRESS BY 1849? - Divisions within society stunted the the progress of supporters of closer unity
WHAY WAS LANGUAGE A KEY OBSTACLE FOR NATIONALISTS?
WAS THEIR AN EVIDENT NORTH-SOUTH DEVIDE?
WHAT WERE THE CONFLICTING INTERESTS BETWEEN THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH?
WHAT OTHER PHYSICAL BARRIERS WERE THERE TO THE DEVELOPEMTN OF A UNITED KINGDOM OF ITALY?
Throughout the country different dialects were spoken - prevented inner state communication - also argued there was not as much lingusitic variety, more like different dialects rather them a completely different language - meant unification ideas got aroung (if at all) a lot slower
North was prosperous and induastrial - South were backwards and agricultural (many were illiterate)
Nationalists (mainly northen middle classes) were fighting for unifications, whereas in the South in the revolutions of 1820-1 and 1848-9 Sicily were capaigning for independence from Naples
No standardised weights or measures, law or currency
HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT SUPPORTERS OF CLOSER UNITY IN ITALY HAD MADE NO POGRESS BY 1849? - Failure of the attempted revolutions
HOW DID THE FACT THAT REVOLUTIONS WERE LOCAL AFFAIRS WITH NO COMMUNICATION AFFECT THE END RESULTS?
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A SATE FIGHTING AGAINST LEADER/SITUATION RATHER THAN FOR UNIFICATION?
HOW WAS THE (LACK OFF) CO-OPERATION BETWEEN REVOLUTIONARY GROUPS?
Shows that campanlisimo was still an issue, and people were fighting against their leader or situation rather then for unification
During the 1848 revolutions their was a small scale revolt in Ventia that persuaded Austrians to surrender. After their victory Venitia voted for a untion with Piedmont. However when Charles was defeated at the Battle of Custoza Venitians cancelled union
Siciily and Naples were at loggerheads - In Piedmont Charles Albert wouldn't accept volunteers from any other states - revolutionaires were divided in their aims (Liberals = constitutional monarchy / Radicals = republican) - Both groups did want to expel Austria - no universally acceptable leader out of Mazzini, Pope Pius, Charles Albert
HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT SUPPORTERS OF CLOSER UNITY IN ITALY HAD MADE NO POGRESS BY 1849? - 2 series of changes that improved Italy and perhaps enhanced nationalist views
HOW DID THE EARLY REIGN OF POPE PIUS IX IMPROVE ITALY?
WHAT WAS THE SIGNIICANT CHANGE WITHIN POLITICS
THIS LED TO THE FORMATION OF WHAY?
HOW DID 'YOUNG ITALY ENHANCE NATIONALIST FEELINGS?
Before his fateful transaction to a reactionary leader Pius made a series of reforms between 1846-48 - demonstarting the change in view throughout Italy - He freed 2000 political prisoners - reformed eduacation and ended press censorship- granted Rome a consitution to replace absolute Papal rule
People were becoming more and more dissatisfied with foreign presence in Italy
Led to the formation of Secret Societies (e.g. The Carbonari) - played an important part in the revolutions - aims were to overthrow the monarchies and srive out the Austrians - However majority of members were middle class and were unwilling to act together
Young Italy was founded by Mazzini - sometimes called Italys first real political party - aim was to make Italy 'one free independant republican nation' - involved in various attempts to promote the case of unification but however came to little effect - young Italy did include and inspire Garibadi who would become a key figure and a sybol of nationalism in susequent years