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Italian Unification
REVISION…read more

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Metternich: Austrian Prince & diplomat who was highly influential at the Congress of Vienna
Mazzini: "Throughout Italy, one stroke of the pen erased all our liberties, all our reform, all our
hope" ­ describing the Congress of Vienna.
Victor Emmanuel I: The ruler of the Kingdom of Piedmont/Sardinia after the Congress of
Pope Pius VII: The ruler of the Papal States and Pope after 1815.
Charles Albert: King of Piedmont in 1831
Code Napoleon: Italy split into 3 states: Piedmont, Lombardy, Venetia. (Kingdoms of Italy,
Naples and other parts annexed to France)…read more

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Ferdinand I: The ruler of the Kingdom of Naples (Naples & Sicily) after the Congress of Vienna.
Marie Louise: The ruler of Parma and wife of Napoleon in 1815.
RISORGIMENTO: Rebirth of Italy
Adelfi: A secret society, also known as the Society of the Perfect Sublime Masters, aimed to
remove Austria and create a democratic republic.
60,000 within the Carbonari. ­ Main aim was a constitutional monarchy.…read more

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Congress of Vienna - 1815
This was, simply, to restore old ways and to resize the main powers so they could balance each
other off and remain at peace
Austria: gained Venice & much of northern Italy
Tuscany: Ferdinand III, not reactionary, improved education and health facilities whilst allowing
freedom of expression away from censorship. May have granted constitution if it wasn't for
Parma: Duchess Marie-Louise (Napoleon's wife) replaced Code Napoleon with something similar
Piedmont: Victor Emmanuel returned and was reactionary in returning to pre-Napoleonic
customs barriers and social hierarchy
Modena: Duke Francis, similar reactionary rule to Piedmont. Members of nobility reinstated and
liberals punished/exiled
Papal States: Pope regained temporal power, Code Napoleon abolished. Censorship strictly
imposed. Most repressive of all the states.
Naples: Ferdinand I had a cruel and oppressive rule. Destroyed Sicilian constitution and
governed it together with Naples.…read more

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1820-21 Revolutions
July 1820: REVOLT IN NAPLES: The leader of this was General Pepe. Head of rebel army.
Causes= Ferdinand increased church power, impoverished, lack of freedom of speech, reduced education, inspired
by Spanish constitution of 1812. (EVENTS= Ferdinand agrees to rioters demands for constitution, all males can vote
and his power decreased. BUT has a meeting with Metternich in which he states he was forced into constitution
and Metternich helps him to crush constitution and rebel forces.
REVOLUTION IN SICILY: = Wanted independence from Naples and felt neglected, agricultural prices fallen so
peasants in debt. Palermo is the capital. (EVENTS = Demanding constitution, buildings burned down etc. However,
old order restored and revolutionary action crushed by Metternich along with Naples)
REVOLUTION IN PIEDMONT: Causes = VE pursued a reactionary policy and 1770 constitution was in place, news
spread about constitution being granted in Naples, members of Carbonari increased. (EVENTS = Mutiny in Turin
causes VE to abdicate. Charles Felix was next in line but he was away so Charles Albert was temporary regent and
granted a constitution. Praised 1812 Spanish Constitution. Fled when Felix returned and left Lib.'s to fight for
constitution themselves! Felix returns, renounces constitution and denounced C.A. as a rebel.
Troppau Protocol: signed by Russia, Prussia & Austria, which aimed to make the Great Powers intervene to stop
the restoration governments being overthrown. Ferdinand stated he had been forced into the constitution.
Revolutions fail because revolutionaries are divided, lacked leadership, popular support and common objective .
Austria too strong.…read more

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1831 Revolutions
REVOLUTION IN MODENA: Led by Enrico Misley who was arrested cos he told Duke Francis his plans.
Duke Francis thought it was safe to leave for Vienna for negotiations. However, whilst he was away riots
took over and a provisional govt was established. (Modena & Parma united)
REVOLUTION IN PARMA: Students encouraged by events in Modena and began demanding a
constitution, Duchess Marie Louise fled and provisional govt established
MODENA AND PARMA JOIN FORCES: However, Duke Francis comes back with Austrian army & defeats
forces. Revolutionaries imprisoned, executed and exiled. Army of occupation stays in Parma
REVOLUTION IN THE PAPAL STATES: Organised by professional classes opposing the church's
oppressive rule. Authorities put up little resistance and provisional govt was established. Metternich's
troops moved in and defeated rebels. Proceeding uprisings crushed by violent, undisciplined Austrian
YOUNG ITALY: Swear to make Italy 'one free, independent,republic nation'. Peaceful campaigns but
Mazzini accepted that violent tactics may be necessary.…read more

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