Unification of Italy AS Edexcel Essay plans for ALL Past Paper questions

  • Created by: Tom Smith
  • Created on: 01-09-13 23:11

How far do you agree that the greatest obstacle to the growth of nationalism in Italy in the years 1815 – 70 was the influence of the Catholic Church




Point – Gioberti a Piedmontese writer pushed for the unification of Italy in the form of a federation of states in which the Pope would be the President in 1843

Example - His book – On the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians – sold 5000

Explanation Gioberti believed that the Pope could significantly advance the cause of Italian unification, therefore the catholic Church wasn't viewed as a hindrance because Gioberti believed the Pope would be pivotal to creating a unified Italy

Point – Due to call from the nationalists and liberals the Pope introduced reforms, probably to prevent the people's discontent from fuelling a revolution

Example – March 1847 Issued a law ending the censorship of publications

Explanation - This encouraged unity as the Pope's reform in one of the most corrupt and oppressive states in Italy showed all Italians that reform was possible in their states as long as they continually pressured their leaders

Point – The Pope did however hinder unification as his views become more conservative as time went on

Example – 1864 Syllabus of Errors is published which condemned “ Porgress, liberalism and modern civilisation”

Explanation – Divided many Italians hindering unity as sharing Catholism was a point of unity however now that the Church condemned Italian unity many people had to choose between their faith and their country

Similarly the 1870 Papal Infallibility (The Pope could grant any law and all Catholics would have to follow it or risk going against God as the Pope spoke for God) can be used for the Example above and the Point and Explanation can remain the same

Point – The lack of international allies also hindered Italian unity as the military force of Austria couldn't be challenged

Example - Revolutionaries had tried to form an alliance with France however Napoleon declined because he feared going to war with Austria would ruin France's diplomatic relations with the other European countries

Explanation – The strongest state Piedmont was unable to defeat Austria therefore the unequipped and untrained revolutionaries stood no chance therefore Austrian intervention also posed a significant hindrance to nationalism

How far was foreign influence and intervention responsible for shaping Italian Unification in the years 1858 – 70

Point – Italian unification has been shaped with the intention of a unified Northern Italy

Example – 1858 meeting at Plombieres sees Napoleon agree to enter a war in which the Austrians would be driven out of the North of Italy

Explanation - Foreign intervention has resulted in the North of Italy being unified however it doesn't appeal to Italian Unification because the south of Italy was never viewed as important in the process of unification therefore from 1858 we can see that there will be divisions between the North and South of Italy because Cavour had


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