Italian Unification

How far do you agree that the Catholic church significantly hindered Italian Unifity in th years to 1870?

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  • Created on: 15-05-11 11:23

ITALIAN UNIFICATION

HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT THE CATHOLIC CHURCH SIGNIFICANTLY HINDERED ITALIAN UNITY IN THE YEARS TO 1870? - THE ACTION OS POPE PIUS CONSIDERABLY HINDERED UNITY

DURING THE 1848 REVOLUTIONS WHAT DID GIOBERTI SUGGEST?

WHAT TRANSFORMATION DID POPE PIUS GO THROUGH?

POPES ALLOCUTION MADE WHAT CLEAR?

WHAT DECISION DID PEOPLE NOW HAVE TO MAKE?

WHEN ROME WAS ATLAST DECALRED THE CAPITAL IN 1870, WHAT DID THE POPE CONDEM?

WHAT BACKED UP THE POPES CONDEMNATION?

HOW DID TIHIS EFFECT NATIONAL UNITY?

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ITALIAN UNIFICATION

Gioberti put forward the idea that the Itlian states should form themselves into a federation with the Pope as head

Pius at first seemed to be progressive and liberal, turned out he was reactionary when it came to Italian unification

Popes allocution made it clear he would not join in the war against Austria, nor would he support Italian Unification

People now had to decide to support poliicl principles or spiritual leader, remained a difficulty up till 1870

Pope condemned the progress of liberals, any catholics who took part in Italian politics or worked for new secular states would excommunicated

1870 the Pope issued Doctrine of Papal Infallibility, declared Popes spiritual judgment couldn't be challenged

Liberal minded Catholics put in a difficult situation - wanted to support gov. but keep faith, threatened social unity, clash between politics and religion

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ITALIAN UNIFICATION

HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT THE CATHOLIC CHURCH SIGNIFICANTLY HINDERED ITALIAN UNITY IN THE YEARS TO 1870? - THE ACTION OS POPE PIUS CONSIDERABLY HINDERED UNITY

WHAS POPEPIUS ALWAYS SEEN AS A REACTIONARY POPE THAT HINDERED UNIFICATION?

ANSWER - At the start of his reign Pius liberal reputation was fully justifiied. He freed 2000 policial prisoners including revolutionaires; reformed education and ended press censorship; granted Rome a constituion to replace absolute papal rule - Figue that Nationalists had hoped for - Giobertis suggestion now seemed plausable - rapid transformation becme as even more of a blow to Italian Liberals

 

 

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ITALIAN UNIFICATION

 

 

 

 

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ITALIAN UNIFICATION

HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT THE CATHOLIC CHURCH SIGNIFICANTLY HINDERED ITALIAN UNITY IN THE YEARS TO 1870? - CATHOLIC CHURCH HNDERED GARIBALDIS ATTEMPTS TO UNIFY THE WHOLE OF ITALY IN 1860

WHAT WAS THE DANGER IF ROME AND THE POPE DEEMED TO BE THREATENED?

THERFORE CAVOUR HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO WHAT?

INVADING ROME MEANT AN ARMED INTERVENTION WITH WHO?

WHY DID GARIBALDI FAIL TO TAKE ROME IN 1862?

HOW DID THIS AFFECT THE IDEA TO MAKE ROME THE CAPITAL OF ITALY?

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ITALIAN UNIFCATION

Danger the Catholic Powers would act

Cavour therefore had to stop Garibaldi before he reached the city of Rome

meant an armed intervention with France,

Goverment was deterred from supporting Garibaldis inavsion of Rome in 1862, as scared of the threat, yet Garibaldi went away with 3000 troops with VE support but no the gov. - VE lost nerve and drew his Support - Garibaldis troop were shot by local force and forced to retreat. His second attempt was also a complete failure as french sent army back to Rome and Garibalsi was easily defeated

Catholic power across Europe was to strong - Significantly harder to proclaim Rome the capitial city of Italy - Invading Rome, meant invading the great Ctholic powers such as France, who twice poved decsiive in any battle that threatened the Pope, only when french troops had been withdrawn where Italian troops able to attack and capture Rome in 1870

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ITALIAN UNIFICATION

HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT THE CATHOLIC CHURCH SIGNIFICANTLY HINDERED ITALIAN UNITY IN THE YEARS TO 1870? - FOREIGN INTERVENTION OF AUSTRIA DURING THE 1820-49 REVOLUTIONS HINDERED ITAILIAN UNIFICATION

WHAT DID THE AUSTRIAN CHANCELLOR METTERNICH WISH?

HOW DID METTERNICH'S AID RESULT IN THE FAILURE OF PIEDMONTS REVOLUTION IN 1820-1?

HOW DID THE AUSTRIANS HINDER THE 1848-9 REVOLUTIONS?

WHAT AFFECT WOUD THESE REVOLUTIONARY FAILURES HAVE ON THE NATIONALISTS?

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ITALIAN UNIFICATION

 

 Metternich wished 'to extinguish the spirit of national unity', regareded domiance in Germany essential to Austrias security

At first revolutions in Piedmont going to plan - Victory Emmanuel I abdicated - looked to leadership of Charles Albert - was not fist in line to the throne - Charles Felix was, appealed to Metternich for aid, Austrian trrops defeated the liberal forces at Battle of Novara in 1821. 1820-21 revolutions also failed in Naples and Sicily due to Austrian intervention

At first charles Albert defeated Austriand in 1848, however Austria came back with reinforcements and defeated Charled Albert at Custoza - Lombrdy left in Austria hands - charch albert decided to renenter war but was defeated at battle of Novara in 1849 and abdicated

failure involved suffering and deaths, nationalists may be deterred from taking furthur action - shows that unification would be almost impossible unless Austria wer defeated - Piedmont (Italians could't do this alone) - unification had to wait until somelike like Cavour provided Piedmont with the ability to defeat Austria

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ITALIAN UNIFICATION

HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT THE CATHOLIC CHURCH SIGNIFICANTLY HINDERED ITALIAN UNITY IN THE YEARS TO 1870? - LACK OF NATIONALIST FEELING IN ITALY HINDERED UNIFCATION, INTERNAL DISUNITY WAS A REAL OBSTACLE

WHAT HAPPENED AFTER FRENCH RULE?

HOW DID THE FACT THE ITALIAN STATES DIDN'T SHARE A COMMON DIALECT EFFECT UNITY?

OVERWHELMING SPIRIT OF WHAT?

HOW DID LACK OF ECONOMIC UNITY EFFECT NATIONAL FEELING?

HOW WAS THE LACK OF NATIONAL FEELING OVERCOME?

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1815 after the defeat of Napoleon french reule came to end, congress of Vienna recationary monarchs and state boundaries restored

Meant revolutionary ideas, such as Mazzinis were unable to spread from state to state, the idea of Italian unity was a uncommmon - however not much linguistic variety, more like different dialects rather than a completly different language

Overwhelming spirit of campanilismo, meaning loyalties were predomiantly to the persons state, and the word 'Italia' was almost unheard of - there wan't a desire to unifify Italy

Urban society of the N. was more forward, greater feeling towards unity, S.states backwards and agricultural, polotics was entirely irrelevant, weren't affected by poltics, middle class revolutionaires did nothing to overcome this, peasnts were ignored and seen as ill eduacted, life didn't improve once Italy was united

Was a rowth of national feeling among middle classes brought on by their hate of Austria

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