History -Italian Unification

period of italian unification -Miss Pigden

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What do I need to do to achieve the certain grade

A grade answer 

  • use a wide range of evidence that is relevant to the question
  • use key historical terms
  • have a clear structure 
  • clear understanding of key concepts and issues
  • consider content and provancance and come to a clear judgement
  • Analysis of ALL SOURCES
  • consider ALL SOURCE and OWN KNOWLEDGE to reach a clear conclusion
  • show understanding of sources that AGREE/DISAGREE with the question
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What do I need to do to achieve the certain grade

B grade answer

  • use evidence that is relevant to he question
  • generally use good historica terminology
  • structure answer clearly
  • clear understanding of key concepts
  • good attmept at explanantion and analysis of sources
  • use ALL SOURCES and OWN KNOWLEDGE to come to a conclusion
  • balance between discussion of the sources

Grade Boundaries

  • A-74/100
  • B-65/100
  • C-56/100
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How to write an A question

Introduction-Do the sources fundementally agree/disagree in relation to the question)

Point 1(Point Evidence Evaluation) Similarity or difference 

Point 2(point Evidence Evaluation)Similarity or Difference

Provanance(5WS) compare sources and suggest reasons for difference

Conclusion(refer back to the question-how useful are the sources as evidence for the question)


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Risorgimento:Means Reawakening".Used to describe the development of a national identiy and common culture 

House fo Savoy:Franco-Italian noble family.Ruled Italy from 1861-1945

Code Napoleon:System of laws and changes brought in under Napoleon I this included abolishing feudalism and introducing equality 

Absolutist goverment:when a ruler rules without any constraits(e.g without parlitment)

Liberals:Believed best form of goverment was one that protected the people

Nationalists:believed the nation state soud be formed by people with a shared culture and identity 

Troppau Doctrine1820:Prusia,Austria,Russia agreed it was the duty of the Great Powers to support any goverment overthrown by revolution 

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Regent:Someone in tempoary control

Constitutional Monarchy:The rule of a monarch who is bound by a constitution

Neo-Guelphs:Those who believed in the creation of a federal Italy under leadership of the Pope

Artisans:Skilled people.PLayed important part of society

Italian confederation:lose alliance of the kingdoms.Pope would be leader as compnsation for loosing land to Kingdom of Central Italy

Piedmontese isolatonlists:people beliebed in the 1850s that Piedmont as a nation would suffer through closer unity with other Italian states

National Society:group founded in 1856 by a group of democrats.devoted to the cause of Italian indepedence

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Who's Who

Napolan Bonaparte:Emperor of France(1804-14) ruled Italy and introduceda number of reforms such as Code Napoleon

Cavour:Piedmontese statesmen.Prime Miniter of Piedmont he organised alliances and development of Piedmont.Died before unification was achieved.

Metternich:Austrian statesmen and foreign minister.Powdul force in europe.Influential figure in repressing liberal movements in Italy

Victor Emmanuel:King of Piedmont he was restored to the throne in 1814.Forced to abdicate in March 1821

Charles Albert:Second in line to the throne after Victor Emmanuel

Napolean III:Tried to start revolutions in Italy and France in the 1840.Became influential in removing Austria from Italy 

Mazzini:He began young Italy influential in Italian unification

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Who's Who

Garabaldi:became key figure in creation of Italy in his military campaigns

Gioberti:xiled from Piedmont on suspicion of being a radical.On 1843 he wrote "On the mora and Civil Primacy of the Italians"

Victor Emmanuel II:King of Piedmont and first king of Italy

Balbo:argued for strong constitutional monarchy in the north

D'Azeglio:argued for public opinion and european opinion wre cruical for change.

Pope Pius IX:Pope from 1846-1878 made a series of reforms when he came to power when led liberal to see him s a possible leader. initially stood up to Austria announced Papal Allocution which stated he did not support the 1848 revolutions

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Who's Who

Radetzky:took part in Austrian intervention put in charge of Austrian army in Italy 1834 he lacked resources.He ledhis army to victory in March 1849

Daniel Manin:leader of movement to free the north form Austrian rule.H e became leading figure in the National Society

Pisacane:leader of the Roman Republic

Lord Palmerston:British Pime Minister made it known that he was Anti-Austrian 

Lord John Russell:became lord Palmerston's foreign secretary in 1859.Strong supporter of Italian unification.believed the Italian question should be solved by applying the idea of self determination

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Treaty of Vienna and it's impact

Positive impact of Napoleonic Rule

  • rise of middle class professionals
  • removal of feudal system
  • fairer code of law-equality in law
  • sale of church land-strengthened position of nobility with more land

Negative impact of Napoleonic rule

  • High conscription to army
  • high taxation for wages
  • Italian fought all over Europe for France and revolution
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Treaty of Vienna and it's impact

Vienna Settlement

  • Aim=to return Europe to political stability &prevent French take over
  • Britain,Austria,Russia and Prussia involved


  • Wanted to restore old pre-1796 order
  • wanted conservative settlement
  • foreign minister
  • Austrian statesmen
  • Wanted to maintain Status Quo
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Conclusions of Treaty of Vienna


  • Settlement did not wipe out all traces of Napoleon rule in Italy
  • Metternichs insistence that al traces of liberal government be suppressed was generally followed
  • Austrian influence over Italy was considerable
  • Little to no push for a united Italy

Secret societies prepared to act for change

Did hope for an end to absolutist monarchy 

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What was the condition of Italy between 1815-1830?

Basic Facts

  • Italy had been ruled by Emperor Napoleon until 1815
  • Vienna settlement divided Italy into 6 states
  • French influence was replaced by Austrian influence
  • There was no single Italian Language
  • Growing middle class
  • majority of land and wealth was owned by the church or nobility
  • Catholic church had both secular and religious power
  • Sicilians in 1820 and the Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia in 182
  • revolutions were led mainly by secret societies aimed to establish consitituions
  • revolutions were concerned more with nationalism and independence form Austria
  • revolutions failed partly due to lack of co-ordination and organisation 
  • major consequence of the revolutions was an increase in Austria influence 
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What was the condition of Italy between 1815-1830?

Key Personalities

  • Metternich-Austria
  • Ferdinand I-Kingdom of Two Sicilian
  • Victor Emmanuel -Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia

Key Ideas

  • Balance of Power
  • Austrian Influence
  • middle class
  • Nationalism,liberalism and radicalism
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what were the main obstacles in the way of Italian

Basic Facts

  • 1830-31 there were revolution in Parma,Modena and Papal States
  • French revolution sparked this off
  • revolutionaries in the Papal States wanted to remove Church domination of the government 
  • All revolutions in 1830-31 were defeated by Austria 
  • reasons for failure of revolutions:lack of unified aims,poor communication,lack of popular support,poor equipment,lack of foreign support,strong Austria
  • Pope Pius IX was elected n 1846 seems as a liberal hope due to several reforms
  • total of 8 revolutions in 1841Sicily,Naples,Tuscany,Papal States,Parma and Modena, Lombardy,Piedmont and Venita
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what were the main obstacles in the way of Italian

Basic Facts

  • 29th April Pope issued Papal Alloucution
  • Piedmont went to war with Austria in March 1848 and March 1849 and lost both times
  • Charles Albert abdicated in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II
  • Piedmont emerged as the leading hope for Italian Nationalists
  • The failure to defeat Austria at every turn indicated a need for foreign intervention 
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Why did the revolutions of 1848-49 fail to unite I

Basic Facts

  • 8th February 1848 Charles Albert granted a constitution to he people of Piedmont the "Statuo"
  • 13th March Metternich was forced from power in Vienna
  • 23rd March Charles Albert joined forces with Lombard and Venetia and declared war on Austria by moving Piedmontese troops into Lombardy
  • Piedmont were defeated at batte of Cusoza and was forced to sign an armistice,Lombardy and most of Venita returned to Austrian control
  • Despite their military failings,Piedmont emerged as the leading hope for Italian nationalists 
  • became clear hat Papacy was no longer willing to lead Italian nationalism
  • failure to defeat Austria at every turn indicated a need for foreign intervention 
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What was the Risorgimento and who were it's figure

Basic Facts

  • Risorgimento means resurrection or rebirth
  • II Risorgimento was the name given to the nationalist newspaper founded in 1847 by Cavour
  • Risorgimento was both political movement and a cultural one
  • Primarly a middle ad upper class movement
  • Key figures in the Risorgimento include:Giorberti,Balbo,Verdi,Mazzini,Cavour,Garabaldi and Victor Emmanuel
  • Risorgimento debate is basically "Was unification the result of years of nationalist struggle finally coming together or was it a combination of circumstance,luck and expansionist policy
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How important to unification of Italy was the cont

Basic Facts

  • The Italian economy in the 1840s was limited mostly to agriculture
  • the emerging industry caused poor living conditions in cities 
  • both the poor living conditions encouraged lower classes to join in the riots led by political reformers
  • when Piedmont went to war with Austria twice it raised it's profile amongst liberals
  • Piedmont was becoming the most economically advanced Italian state
  • Under D'Azelio Piedmont modernised by reducing the power of Catholic Church by abolishing church court 
  • through the increase in the railway lines his increased the overall trade in Piedmont 
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What were the main factors in the establishment of

Basic Facts

  • in July 1858 Napoleon III and Cavour met in secret at plombiers as a result of the Orsini affair at the meeting the two planned a war with Austria
  • Austria were driven out of Lombardy
  • Italy became a confederation of 4 States
  • France was to receive Savoy and possibly Niece
  • Austria was defeated at Magenta on June 4th
  • Napoleon did not claim Niece and Savoy but did want payment for the cost of the war
  • When Cavour heard of the agreement he resigned
  • Central Duchies disagreed with Villafrance and favoured annexation by Piedmont
  • Garabaldi followed his Sicilian success by invading mainland of Naples Cavour and Napoleon were against it
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What were the main factors in the establishment of

  • The Papal army was defeate at the battle of Caselfidardo on 18th Sep 1860
  • Oct 20th Garabaldi and Victor Emmanuel finally met at Teano
  • Only Britain were in public support of Italian unification
  • Cavour unable to persuade the Pope to give up Rome and the South was becomingly lawless and slipping towards civil war.At this crucial time on June 6th Cavour died the new state was lacking an obvious political leader 
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How important to unification of Italy were the con

Basic Facts

  • Cavour was prime minister of Piedmont from 1852-1861
  • Cavour founded the newspaper I'll Risorgimento
  • Cavour was not necessarily a nationalist but worked hard to expand Piedmont and remove Austrian control and influence
  • Cavour worked to include the central duchies into the new kingdom in 1860 and agreed the annexation of the central duchies of Emilia and Tuscany to Piedmont
  • Cavour invaded the Papal states to prevent Garabaldi doing so
  • Garabaldi first major role in Italian unification was his joint command of the Roman Republic founded after the revolutions of 1848
  • Mazzini was perhaps one of the earliest nationalist and created "young Italy" in 1830 a movement dedicated to the creation of a unified and republican Italy 
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What was the significance of the role played by fo

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What was the significance of the role played by fo

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How divided or united was Italy in the period 1861

Basic Facts

  • Italy was a united nation but Venetia remained under the control of Austria and Rome with the support of France remained under the control of the Pope
  • A system of Piedmontisation began the new state was plagued by many problems in the first few years such as a huge debt built up over the preceding years through Cavour s political dealings and military campaigns
  • Despite Piedmont recent modernisation the country was still massively behind the rest of Europe with some areas of agricultural unchanged since the Roman period
  • The first major attempt to fully unify Italy was Garibaldi attack on Rome
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How divided or united was Italy in the period 1861

  • The september convention was the agreement between Napoleaon and Vitor Emmanuel that France would withdraw troops from Rome and be replaced by Italian ones
  • In 1866 an attempt was made to bring Venetia unified by forming a military alliance with Prussia.In April 1866 Italy agreed to fight Austria
  • Despite losing military to Austria Italy was on the victorious side in the war Venetia was handed to France who conducted a plebiscite
  • In 1870 the French troops withdrew from Rome to concentrate on the Prussian threat and Victor Emmanuel sent troops into Rome
  • Pope Pius IX objected but the Italian army defeated what little resistance there was
  • The Italian government accept hat the Pop should hold temporal control over the area of he Vatican City but despite he utility the pope refused to accept 
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USE OBJECTIVE rather than bias

TYPICALITY: typical reflectin of what people were genrally thinking

AUTHENTICITY: how reliable is this source does it genraly reflect the authors attitude

COMPLETENESS: limitations of the source what it doesn't tell us

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This is really helpful (: There isn't alot on Italian unification so thanks

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