Italian Unification 1860 onwards

Unification notes from the Heinemann textbook.

Only from 1860

Hopefully theyre useful, edexcel course. 

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Taya Jackson
The Road To Italian Unification 1860 - 1870
Votes in 1859 - 1860 meant that all Italian states except for Venetia were included in the
Kingdom Of Sardinia.
1860 - question mark over any further advancements towards unity with uncertainty over
Nice, Savoy and Central Duchies.
1859 - Piedmontese and Austrian War. Where Napoleon sued for peace because foreign
powers disapproved of his involvement.
Villafranca agreement
1860 - Cavour returned as PM and immediately negotiated a deal with Napoleon.
Piedmont would give over Sicily and Nice.
France would accept Piedmontese annexation to the central duchies, if
accompanied by popular vote - rigged.
Garibaldi angry at French and the agreements at Plombieres.
From Nice therefore did not appreciate that Nice had been handed to France.
Intervention in Sicily
April 1860 - news breaks out that there is an uprising in Sicily.
Garibaldi is persuaded to help Sicilian cause so
travels south although
planning to go to naples with his army.
Army known as `the thousand'
Garibaldi declared that he would liberate Italy in the name of `Italy and Victor Emmanuel.'
Accepted by Mazzini - therefore Garibaldi is uniting the south with approval.
Cavour is faced with a decision;
· opposing Garibaldi would make his government unpopular and offend members of
the National Society who had helped Piedmont
· Elections were to be held soon and he did not want Garibaldi's issue to change his
political status. (Garibaldi was popular)

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· If Garibaldi gets sicily, he will hand to Victor Emmanuel so Cavour will be
associated with the peasants from the south.
11th May 1860 - Garibaldi and his army land and faced with little opposition
Gets a lot of support from sicilians
Palermo (capital) is easily captured
15th May 1860 - Calatafimi battle - first encounter with Neopolitan army and sensational
victory for Garibaldi.
Sicily conquered by end of July.…read more

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Garibaldi and Emmanuel
7 November - the two met in Naples and Garibaldi handed over his conquests to the king.
Garibaldi politically isolated.
Piedmont; Garibaldi not portrayed as hero but an authoritarian figure
Asked for powers to rule south for a year; declined due to unpopularity.…read more

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Lombar dy had its own education system,
legal system and structure of local government which was all abolished by
Tuscany - exception!
Imposition of Piedmontese laws delayed for political reasons.
Ricasoli argued successfully for protection of Tuscan customs and legal systems in the
short term at least.
Cavours election victory;
1861 election = significant victory for Cavour - party dominated gvt until 1876.
Opposition to Cavour
April 1861 - appeared to complain against treatment of his soldiers.…read more

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Issue of Rome;
· September 1864 Napoleon agreed to evacuate Rome within 2 years if
Italy's capital switched to Florence.
· Therefore, he would remove his men if Italians promised not to invade.…read more

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Plebiscite in Venice approved annexation.
Was Victor Emmanuel the key figure in Italian unification?
· King of Piedmont-Sardinia
· retained the statuto
· became the first king of Italy in 1861
Evidence against Victor Emmanuel being the key figure:
X made peace with Austria on 6th August by signing the Treaty of Milan -
dosen't care if they are in the Italian peninsula, no nationalists agreed with this.…read more

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3rd October 1860, Victor Emmanuel led the piedmontese army in person
which demonstrates his leadership, then met Garibaldi on 26th October.
Final judgement;
He was a figurehead of a united Italy. The Pope had been a figurehead in the past, but
after his allocution in 1848, the whole revolution collapsed.
This shows that without a leader, unification would have been impossible. Victor
Emmanuel was the leader.…read more

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Nationalists moved to Piedmont (30,000) due to constitution, free
Strengthened Piedmont allowing it to become leader of the North
textile industry thrived under Cavour.
free trade agreements by 1851 with Portugal, France, UK and
After Crimea war, Cavour placed the `Italian Question' on agenda
discussed April 1856
lead to the British showing support for unification and helping
Garibaldi to cross to the mainland.…read more

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· Participated in a number of battle s
and revolutions
Evidence against him being a key figure:
X Only returned to Europe in 1854 - Emmanuel and Cavour had been doing a
lot for unification before this. Garibaldi therefore only came in at the very end and
did not contribute much to the long fight for unification.…read more

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October 1860 - Garibaldi destroyed the Neopolitan army at the Battle Of
Garibaldi was key in shaping Ital y; he met
with Emmanuel to directly hand over his winning territories.
Garibaldi was vital in uniting the whole of Italy, however he used Cavour as a platform as
many things he used would not have been possible without Cavour. Supported by the fact
that he was not in Europe for a lot of the fighting.…read more


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