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Taya Jackson

The Road To Italian Unification 1860 - 1870

Votes in 1859 - 1860 meant that all Italian states except for Venetia were included in the
Kingdom Of Sardinia.
1860 - question mark over any further advancements towards unity with uncertainty over
Nice, Savoy and Central Duchies.

1859 -…

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Taya Jackson

· If Garibaldi gets sicily, he will hand to Victor Emmanuel so Cavour will be
associated with the peasants from the south.

11th May 1860 - Garibaldi and his army land and faced with little opposition
Gets a lot of support from sicilians
Palermo (capital) is easily captured…

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Taya Jackson

Garibaldi and Emmanuel
7 November - the two met in Naples and Garibaldi handed over his conquests to the king.
Garibaldi politically isolated.

Piedmont; Garibaldi not portrayed as hero but an authoritarian figure
Asked for powers to rule south for a year; declined due to unpopularity.

Foreign Reaction…

Page 4

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Taya Jackson

Lombar dy had its own education system,
legal system and structure of local government which was all abolished by

Tuscany - exception!
Imposition of Piedmontese laws delayed for political reasons.
Ricasoli argued successfully for protection of Tuscan customs and legal systems in the
short term at least.…

Page 5

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Taya Jackson

Issue of Rome;
· September 1864 Napoleon agreed to evacuate Rome within 2 years if
Italy's capital switched to Florence.
· Therefore, he would remove his men if Italians promised not to invade.

· The new PM agree, but there were rio

ts in Turin
(23 killed)

Page 6

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Taya Jackson

Plebiscite in Venice approved annexation.

Was Victor Emmanuel the key figure in Italian unification?

· King of Piedmont-Sardinia
· retained the statuto
· became the first king of Italy in 1861

Evidence against Victor Emmanuel being the key figure:

X made peace with Austria on 6th August by…

Page 7

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Taya Jackson

3rd October 1860, Victor Emmanuel led the piedmontese army in person
which demonstrates his leadership, then met Garibaldi on 26th October.

Final judgement;

He was a figurehead of a united Italy. The Pope had been a figurehead in the past, but
after his allocution in 1848, the whole…

Page 8

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Taya Jackson

Nationalists moved to Piedmont (30,000) due to constitution, free

Strengthened Piedmont allowing it to become leader of the North
textile industry thrived under Cavour.
free trade agreements by 1851 with Portugal, France, UK and

After Crimea war, Cavour placed the `Italian Question' on agenda
discussed April…

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· Participated in a number of battle s
and revolutions

Evidence against him being a key figure:

X Only returned to Europe in 1854 - Emmanuel and Cavour had been doing a
lot for unification before this. Garibaldi therefore only came in at the very end and

Page 10

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Taya Jackson

October 1860 - Garibaldi destroyed the Neopolitan army at the Battle Of

Garibaldi was key in shaping Ital y; he met
with Emmanuel to directly hand over his winning territories.


Garibaldi was vital in uniting the whole of Italy, however he used Cavour as a…


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