First Stage and the Contribution of Mazzini:
Mazzini led the armed aggression against the Austrian occupation of Italian states. He failed to achieve any result. Mazzini tried to raise the awareness about revolution and the need of a united Italy among the Italians through their writing. They tried to convince the Italians that they were a nation and the country was not a geographical expression. Mazzini made every possible effort to raise the feelings of nationalism among the Italians through his organization Young Italy. He had the great faith in the energy of the youth of Italian and believed that the youth of Italy would bring about the unification of Italy.
The main results achieved in the first stage were two. The problem of lack of awareness of nationalism was ended. A dilemma over the number of ideologies was settled in favour of constitutional monarchy. Mazzini succeeded in giving a vision of a nation to the Italians but failed to convince them for his plan of a Republic of Italy.
Second Stage Of Unification And Role Of Cavour
Second stage can be identified with the achievements of Cavour. He first made Sardinia strong militarily and economically. Then he earned friendship of the main powers of Europe by helping them in Cremia war. He discredited Austria in the Paris Conference and brought the problem of Italian nation before the world with the help of France, he very astutely removed Austria out of…