- Establishes himslef as a nationalist and military leader during Roman Republic 1849
- Lessons 1848- abandons Mazzini & Republicinism and follows Cavour and V.E, encouraged other republicans to do the same
- 1859 warcontirbution in battles against Austria
- 1860- falls out with Cavour over Nice and Savoy- takes avtion: The Thousand abd conquest of Naples and Sicily
- Cavour forced to act after threat to march to Rome
- Teano & V.E- Unification of most of Italy
- Failed attempts to conquring Rome 1860s
- Never really planned to unify the whole of the Italian peninsula, thought it was impossible and France would oppose it, as he belived.
- Felt unification was unwise as South was very different culturally, econoically and politically to the north.
- All he wanted to do was bult a Greater Peidmont in northern and central Italy and it would replace Austrian influence.
- 1850: Defnded Statuto, progressive gov & working with nationalist
- Economic policies: trade, railway, modernisation
- Crimean, P.P.C, Plombeires, Secret Treaty, alliences
- 1859 war
Victor Emmanuell II
- 1849- decided to keep Statuto
- 1850s- ensures a stable constitution monarchy develops fro Piedmont
- 1852- Appointed Cavour PM
- 1854- Keener then Cavour to join Crimean, spotted opportunity for allies, necourages French allience and Cavour's foriegn policy actions
- Stopped Cavour to continue 1859 War alone
- Allows Cavour to come back 1860
- 1860- Garibaldi more encouragment to gain South than Cavour did
- Loyality to Garibaldi and other nationalists
- Head of state in 1866 & 1870 and involved in diplomacy when Italy makes alliences with Prussia and gains Venetia and Rome
- Was a radical republican nationalist
- ideas were too extreme at the time, Metternich- "Most dangerous man in Europe"
- 1830-40s influential in helping spread of nationalism
- Itailian Independence and Unity- argued Italy had to be indpendent from foriegn influence. Argued it should have one central gov
- Unification by Italalians- Italy should be unified by Italian people 'from below' who should rise up against thier oppressors
- Democracy and republicanism- argued that should be a democratic republic whose constitution would guarantee that its gov was elected by its people.
- Radical social change- proposed radical social reform- supported the redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor
1831- Wrote to Charles Albert- lead unification- ignored by king- so he wouldnt have to give up throne
Abandoned the Carbonari as aims were too divided- he founded Young Italy- meant to give nationalists movement clear aims- used propaganda