• Establishes himslef as a nationalist and military leader during Roman Republic 1849
  • Lessons 1848- abandons Mazzini & Republicinism and follows Cavour and V.E, encouraged other republicans to do the same
  • 1859 warcontirbution in battles against Austria
  • 1860- falls out with Cavour over Nice and Savoy- takes avtion: The Thousand abd conquest of Naples and Sicily
  • Cavour forced to act after threat to march to Rome
  • Teano & V.E- Unification of most of Italy
  • Failed attempts to conquring Rome 1860s
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  • Never really planned to unify the whole of the Italian peninsula, thought it was impossible and France would oppose it, as he belived.
  • Felt unification was unwise as South was very different culturally, econoically and politically to the north.
  • All he wanted to do was bult a Greater Peidmont in northern and central Italy and it would replace Austrian influence.
  • 1850: Defnded Statuto, progressive gov & working with nationalist
  • Economic policies: trade, railway, modernisation
  • Crimean, P.P.C, Plombeires, Secret Treaty, alliences
  • 1859 war
  • other
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Victor Emmanuell II

  • 1849- decided to keep Statuto
  • 1850s- ensures a stable constitution monarchy develops fro Piedmont
  • 1852- Appointed Cavour PM
  • 1854- Keener then Cavour to join Crimean, spotted opportunity for allies, necourages French allience and Cavour's foriegn policy actions
  • Stopped Cavour to continue 1859 War alone
  • Allows Cavour to come back 1860
  • 1860- Garibaldi more encouragment to gain South than Cavour did
  • Loyality to Garibaldi and other nationalists
  • Head of state in 1866 & 1870 and involved in diplomacy when Italy makes alliences with Prussia and gains Venetia and Rome
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  • Was a radical republican nationalist
  • ideas were too extreme at the time, Metternich- "Most dangerous man in Europe"
  • 1830-40s influential in helping spread of nationalism

Key Idas

  • Itailian Independence and Unity- argued Italy had to be indpendent from foriegn influence. Argued it should have one central gov
  • Unification by Italalians- Italy should be unified by Italian people 'from below' who should rise up against thier oppressors
  • Democracy and republicanism- argued that should be a democratic republic whose constitution would guarantee that its gov was elected by its people.
  • Radical social change- proposed radical social reform- supported the redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor


1831- Wrote to Charles Albert- lead unification- ignored by king- so he wouldnt have to give up throne

Abandoned the Carbonari as aims were too divided- he founded Young Italy- meant to give nationalists movement clear aims- used propaganda

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