Italian unification

Italian unification Edexcel Option 1E

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  • Created on: 14-05-12 09:49
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What were the main obstacles in the way of Italian
unification 183049?
Austria Army (Radetsky, Queadrilateral)
Metternich (Italy is a geographical expression) against Unification (problem for Au empire)
Control of Venetia, Lombardy (two most industrialised, rich provinces)
Balance of power in Europe
France Support Pope 48 onwards
Italian statesHave Austrian (And European) support
No constitutions
Italian people Apathy
Middle class revolutions ­ actively against Poorer classes in many cases.
Groups Parochial ­ Carbonari (more patriotic idealists than practical politicians) given
credibility by states
No leadership (or opposing leaderships)
Unification not desired (independence/Separatism i.e. Sicily)
Role of Pope
Opposing Formats for independence (Republic, Monarchy, Federation, nationalists)
Mazzini(in exile) ­ Young Italy (Italian, Change always through Revolution, inability to be flexible)
48 Revs Pope ­ (allocution antiunification)
Piedmont ­ future leadership of Italy, demise of CA
Alliances between states and then individual
Leadership? Mazzini/Garibaldi split.

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What was the Risorgimento and who were its key
Rebirth or Awakening
Mazzini From Intellectual, middle class family
Member of Carbonari betrayed, exiled
Young Italy started in 1831, in Marseille (Mazzini in exile) Aimed at all sections of
Society (not just middle class) Idealistic and written in Italian
Ultimate Aim ­ `one, free, independent republican nation'. (The `ultimate aim' was `the
republic one and indivisible')
God speaks through the people, and because the people want Unification, God
wants it.…read more

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Constitution 1848 slow to lead movement against Austrians.
Initial success ultimate defeat against Au ­ abdicated.…read more

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What were the main factors in the establishment of
the Kingdom of Italy in 1861?
Revolutions 1830/1 ­ Mainly Constitutional aims
Role of Mazzini Young Italy/ Mazzini 1831
Mazzinian revolts 1833 onwards
VEII Modernising Piedmont
1858 Plombières
`Grido di Dalore' speech 1859
Control of Cavour and Garibaldi
Piedmontese takeover of states (rather than Unification)
1848 Revolutions Constitutional aims
Some agreements between revolutionary states
Leadership of Charles Albert (eventually!)
Demise of Metternich
Piedmont seen as the best option in future.…read more

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How divided or united was Italy in the period
Kingdom of Italy proclaimed 1860
VEII of Italy (not VEI)
Territory still occupied ­ Venetia, Rome
Unification or Piedmontisation
War of 1866/AustroPrussian war/ 3rd War of Independence
1860s Italy offers 100million lire for Venetia
1865 Bismarck proposes Alliance with Italy
1866 April Italy agrees to attack Austria if war starts within 2 months
June War starts Italy's army defeated at Custozza, Navy at Lissa.…read more

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Pope excommunicates all those involved…read more


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