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Page 1

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What were the main obstacles in the way of Italian
unification 183049?

Austria Army (Radetsky, Queadrilateral)
Metternich (Italy is a geographical expression) against Unification (problem for Au empire)
Control of Venetia, Lombardy (two most industrialised, rich provinces)
Balance of power in Europe

France Support Pope…

Page 2

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What was the Risorgimento and who were its key

Rebirth or Awakening

Mazzini From Intellectual, middle class family
Member of Carbonari betrayed, exiled
Young Italy started in 1831, in Marseille (Mazzini in exile) Aimed at all sections of
Society (not just middle class) Idealistic and written in Italian

Page 3

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Constitution 1848 slow to lead movement against Austrians.
Initial success ultimate defeat against Au ­ abdicated.

Victor Emmanuel II Modernise P (not massive industrialization)
Appointed Cavour PM
Plombières 1858 War of 1859, (Lombardy gained, Cavour resigns)
Controlled both Garibaldi and Cavour?
Gains South and most of Papal states in October…

Page 4

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What were the main factors in the establishment of
the Kingdom of Italy in 1861?

Revolutions 1830/1 ­ Mainly Constitutional aims

Role of Mazzini Young Italy/ Mazzini 1831
Mazzinian revolts 1833 onwards

VEII Modernising Piedmont
1858 Plombières
`Grido di Dalore' speech 1859
Control of Cavour and Garibaldi
Piedmontese takeover…

Page 5

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How divided or united was Italy in the period
Kingdom of Italy proclaimed 1860
VEII of Italy (not VEI)
Territory still occupied ­ Venetia, Rome
Unification or Piedmontisation

War of 1866/AustroPrussian war/ 3rd War of Independence

1860s Italy offers 100million lire for Venetia
1865 Bismarck proposes Alliance with Italy…

Page 6

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Pope excommunicates all those involved


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