Section A (Edexcel)

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Section A ­ Exercise and Training
Reasons For Taking Part in Activity:
Health, Fitness, Exercise and Performance
Health Related Fitness (HRF)
Muscular strength: the ability of a muscle or a muscle group to apply
force and overcome resistance
Rowing
Wrestling
High jump
Hammer
Cardiovascular Fitness:
Rowing
400m-800m running
Football
Long distance running
Muscular Endurance:
Rowing
400m ­ 800m running
Long distance running
Flexibility:
Ballet
High jump
Hurdles

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Body composition: refers to the proportions of lean body mass and
body fat mass
Ballet
Wrestling
High jump
Hammer
Big Macs Make Children Fat
Body Fat Can't Make Muscles
Skill Related Fitness
Agility: The ability to change direction accurately and quickly
Hammer
Skiing
Tennis
Football
High jump
Balance: The ability to maintain the equilibrium of the body
Fencing
Ballet
Skiing
Windsurfing
Hammer
CoOrdination: the ability to use 2 or more body parts together
Ballet…read more

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Skiing
Windsurfing
Tennis
High jump
Long distance
Hammer
Power: The ability to execute strength performances quickly
Rowing
Sprint start
Hammer
Reaction time: the time required to respond to a given stimulus
Fencing
Sprint start
Tennis
Speed:
Sprintstart
Skiing
400m ­ 800m running
football
A.B.C.…read more

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Methods of Training
Interval training: when exercise is alternated with rest periods
E.g.
Six sets of sprinting then jogging back followed by a 2 minute rest
period before repeating
2x(200m sprint, 100m jog) 200m sprint followed by a 2.5 minute rest
period before repeating
Fartlek Training (Swedish word, literally meaning speedplay): training at
different speeds of different terrains
E.g.…read more

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Key words:
Calcium: a mineral vital to healthy growth of bones and teeth, found in
milk, yoghurt, cheese and other dairy products
Cartilage: a dense, elastic connective tissue which cushions and
connects many bones in the skeleton
Compact Bone: a hard, dense substance beneath the periosteum
forming the shaft of long bones
Epiphysis: head of the bone
Ossification: the growth and development of bones
Periosteum: tough skinlike membrane surrounding the bone
Skeleton: the bony framework of the body
Cancellous (spongy) bone: a honeycomb like substance,…read more

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There is a disc of cartilage between each vertebrae to protect them, these are known as
intervertebral discs
5 functions of the vertebral column
Protect the spinal cord
Support the upper body
Allow a wide range of movement
Support our posture
Passes force to other parts of the body
Collarbone = clavicle
Breastbone = sternum
Top arm = humerus
Bottom arm (back) = radius
Bottom arm (front) = ulna
Top leg = femur
Kneecap = patella
Front of leg = tibia
Back of leg =…read more

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Top of the pelvis = the iliac crest
Ribs
Shoulder blade = scapula
Types of Bones
Long bones = these are the large bones in our legs, arms, fingers and
toes. We use them in the main movements of our body
Short Bones = these are the small bones at the joints of our hands and
feet.…read more

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Produces blood = we need blood cells to take oxygen and nutrients to
our cells and also to fight infection. Red and white blood cells are
produced in the bone marrow of the ribs, femur and vertebrae.
How do our bones grow?
1. In the embryo most of the skeleton is made from cartilage, which
is a firm but elastic material
2. As the embryo grows, cartilage is changed to bone in a process
called ossification. This process continues through childhood and
into adulthood.…read more

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Medullary canal ­ within the yellow bone marrow.
Bone cells
Even when a bone stops growing it is full of life. Osteoblasts keep
making new cells, whilst osteoclasts break the bone down. When you
exercise this puts pressure on the osteoblasts to work harder to
keep your bones strong.
The two different skeletons:
The axial skeleton is the central axis of your body.…read more

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Gliding
Saddle
Pivot
Components of a synovial joint: -
Joint capsule = the outer sleeve which holds the bones together and protects the joint.
It is an extension of the skin / periosteum of the bone. Made of fibrous tissue
Synovial membrane = lines the capsule and secretes a slippery liquid called synovial
fluid
Joint Cavity = small gap between the bones filled with synovial fluid
Synovial fluid = contained within the joint cavity. Lubricates the joint. Released from
synovial membrane.…read more

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