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Section A ­ Exercise and Training
Reasons For Taking Part in Activity:
Health, Fitness, Exercise and Performance
Health Related Fitness (HRF)

Muscular strength: the ability of a muscle or a muscle group to apply
force and overcome resistance
Rowing

Wrestling

High jump

Hammer

Cardiovascular Fitness:
Rowing

400m-800m running

Football

Long…

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Body composition: refers to the proportions of lean body mass and
body fat mass
Ballet

Wrestling

High jump

Hammer

Big Macs Make Children Fat
Body Fat Can't Make Muscles
Skill Related Fitness
Agility: The ability to change direction accurately and quickly

Hammer
Skiing
Tennis
Football
High jump
Balance: The ability…

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Skiing
Windsurfing
Tennis
High jump
Long distance
Hammer
Power: The ability to execute strength performances quickly

Rowing
Sprint start
Hammer
Reaction time: the time required to respond to a given stimulus

Fencing
Sprint start
Tennis
Speed:

Sprintstart
Skiing
400m ­ 800m running
football
A.B.C. Paul Richard Sarah

Powerful Crabs React…

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Methods of Training
Interval training: when exercise is alternated with rest periods

E.g.
Six sets of sprinting then jogging back followed by a 2 minute rest
period before repeating

2x(200m sprint, 100m jog) 200m sprint followed by a 2.5 minute rest
period before repeating

Fartlek Training (Swedish word, literally meaning…

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Key words:

Calcium: a mineral vital to healthy growth of bones and teeth, found in
milk, yoghurt, cheese and other dairy products
Cartilage: a dense, elastic connective tissue which cushions and
connects many bones in the skeleton
Compact Bone: a hard, dense substance beneath the periosteum
forming the shaft of…

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There is a disc of cartilage between each vertebrae to protect them, these are known as
intervertebral discs

5 functions of the vertebral column
Protect the spinal cord

Support the upper body

Allow a wide range of movement

Support our posture

Passes force to other parts of the body

Collarbone…

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Top of the pelvis = the iliac crest

Ribs
Shoulder blade = scapula
Types of Bones

Long bones = these are the large bones in our legs, arms, fingers and
toes. We use them in the main movements of our body
Short Bones = these are the small bones at…

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Produces blood = we need blood cells to take oxygen and nutrients to
our cells and also to fight infection. Red and white blood cells are
produced in the bone marrow of the ribs, femur and vertebrae.
How do our bones grow?

1. In the embryo most of the skeleton…

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Medullary canal ­ within the yellow bone marrow.
Bone cells
Even when a bone stops growing it is full of life. Osteoblasts keep
making new cells, whilst osteoclasts break the bone down. When you
exercise this puts pressure on the osteoblasts to work harder to
keep your bones strong.

The…

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Gliding

Saddle

Pivot

Components of a synovial joint: -
Joint capsule = the outer sleeve which holds the bones together and protects the joint.
It is an extension of the skin / periosteum of the bone. Made of fibrous tissue

Synovial membrane = lines the capsule and secretes a slippery…

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