GCSE PE PAPER 2

health
(world health organisation) a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not mearly the absence of disease and infirmity
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fitness
the ability to be able to meet/cope with the demands of the enviroment
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well being
involves physical,mental and social elements, the mix of these gives people a sense of being happy and healthy
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physical health and well being
refers to all body systems working well, so you are free from injury or illness
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physical health
prevent the onset of obesity, reduces the risk of illness e.g. diabetes, improves efficiency of the body systems, you can carry out tasks without becoming tired
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mental health and well being
an individual can cope with mental stress such as working productively. Taking part in exercise can affect mental health positively. your state of mind can improve (mental health) and you may feel good after exercise (mental well being)
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mental
reduces stress/tension, releases feel good hormones in the body, enables a person to control their emotions and work well
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social health and well being
basic human needs are being met eg. food, shleter and clothing. You have friendship and support, value in society and are socially active
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social
provides opportunities to mingle, encourages team work, ensures basic human needs are met, encourages co-operation
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fitness
as you exercise and do activities your body adapts to the demands and improves fitness. As fitness imrpoves you meet the demands of the enviroment more easily without suffering
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fitness
reduces the chance of injury, makes it easier to complete physical work, makes you feel happy and content
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sendentary lifestyle
when you are not active
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sedentary lifestyle concequences
weight gain (physcial), poor self esteem (mental), heart disease (physical)
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commonlife style choices
education, exercise, balanced diet
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obesity affecting performance
obesity is a term used to descibe people with a large fat content, usually over 40% body fat
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what is obesity caused by
an imbalance of calories 9kcal) consumed compared to energy expenditure
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how do you classify obesity
people with a body mass index (BMI) of over 30% or 20% or move above ideal weight for height
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BMI
compares your weight to your height
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obesisty effects on fitness
carrying fats affect performance, performance in some activities can improve, obesity is generally negative as it can limit different components of a persons fitness, limts agility, limits power
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obesity effects on health and well being
obesity will affects all 3 components; physical, mental and social. obesity can cause ill health (physical), contibutes to the development of cancer, higher cholestrol, increase in blood pressure, developemnt in diabetes
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obesity effects on mental health
depression, lack of confidence, feel like they cant contribute to society
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obesity effects on social health
inability to socialise, unable to leave home, uncomftable in social situations
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somanto typing
a method used to classify body types
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ectomorph characteristics
very thin and tall, thin face/high forehead, narrow shoulders/hips/chest, long arms/legs, rectangle figure good for sports such as high jump, long jump and long distance running
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mesomorph characteristics
broad shoulder, narrow waist, wedge shape, large muscle content, body shape good for power and strength, triangle figure. good for sports such as rugby (wings), sprinter, weightlifter or a football player
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endomorph characteristics
pear shape figure, pear shape body, high fat content found in thighs, upperarms and middle. good for sports such as rubgy (prop), sumo wrestling, shot putters, good for activities which require bulk
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energy
the bodys fuel and we get it from food
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what we need energy for
growth, repair, development and movement
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how to measure energy
KCAL (kilocalories)
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to maintain a healthy weight the energy we take in must what
match energy we expend (give out)
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average male needs ? calories
2,500 a day
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average female needs ? calories
2,000 a day
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factors affecting kcal required - age
younger people need more calories as you get older you body replaces muscles with fat and fat burns fewer calories
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factors affecting kcal required - gender
men need more kcal as they have a larger skeletonand greater muscle mass
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factors affecting kcal required - height
if youre taller you need more kcal as your skeleton is larger
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factors affecting kcal required - energy expenditure
more exercise you do the more energy you need to expend so you will need more kcal
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balanced diet
a diet which contains lots of different types of food to provide the suitable nurtients, vitamins and minerals required
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why do we need a balanced diet
unused energy gets stored as fat which could lead to obesity, suitable energy is ready to be used for activity, correct nutirents are needed so the body can function (grow and be hydrated)
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nutrition
the process of consuming the foods you need
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good nutrition
takes the form of a balnced diet
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a balnced diet contains
fat, carbohydrates, water, fibre, protein, vitamins and minerals
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carbohydrates
pasta, bread and cereal. main preffered eenrgy source for all exercise at all intensities, 55% - 60% should be carbs
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simple carbs
sugars including glucose which break down quickly and give us immediate energy
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complex carbs
starches which are released slowly by the body and are less likely to be stored as fat
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fats
milk and cheese. another energy source which help to carry vitamins, provides more energy than carbs, but can only be used as energy at a low intensity e.g. walking. 25% - 30% of our diet should be fat
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two types of fat
saturated (animal), unsaturated (vegetable oil)
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too much fat can lead to hezlth risks such as...
high cholesterol, heart disease, narrowing of arteries
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protein
fish, meat and eggs. used for muscle growth and repair (important to eat after activity) 15% of our diet should be protein
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vitamins
orgainc substances such as vegetables
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vitamin A
used for function of the skin
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minerals
inorganic substances such as calcium from milk for bones, hair and nails
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vitamins and minerals
we only need a small quantity of each but this is essential for the bodys general health
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water balance
60% of body weight is water
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water
needed for hydration so the body can function
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dehydration
the opposite of hydration and is what happens when the body dosent have enough water to function
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where do we get water from
food and drink
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how do we loose water
sweat, urine, faeces and water vapour as we breathe out, we must replace what we use
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staying hydrated means
we have good reactions if were hydrated, helps us to maintain body temperature (crucial for a sports person)
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how much we drink depends on...
enviroment, temperature and how much activity youre doing
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what happens if we become dehydrated
blood thickening, blood becomes viscous (thicker and stickier)
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viscous blood means..
it slows down its speed of travel delviering O2 to muscles and organs
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increase of heart rate when dehydrated
it works harder to pump thicker blood leading to an irregular heart beat
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increase in body temperature when dehydrated
causes us to overheat meaning slower reaction times, poor decisions, muscle fatigue, leading to cramp, dizziness, neausea and blurred vision
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skill
an action or way behaving that we learn
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ability
something a person is born with, it is inherited and a stable trait
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trait
a distinguishing quality or characteristic belonging to a person
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classification of skill
skills are classified in different ways depending on their characteristics. these are called continium
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basic --- complex
open --- complex
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self paced --- externally paced
gross movement --- fine movement
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setting goals
allow us to get motivated or improve something
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goals
give performers a target to aspire to, prepares performers both physically and mentally
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without goals
training can become unfocused and ineffective
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performance goals
personal goals that someone would like to achieve in the future
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what are perosnal goals based on
what a performer has already achieved or what they would like to achieve in the future. the performer does not compare themself to toehr people and achievements
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outcome goals
focused on the end result, invloves a comparison with other competitors
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performers shuld set themself short/long term goals because...
this helps them to stay motivated so if they achieve a short term goal they have a long term goal to remain motivated about. performance and outcome goals and be used together
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basic infomation processing model
input -> decision making -> output -> feedback
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intrinsic feedback
recieve from the performer themself from thought/emotion
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kinaesthetic feedback
recieved by receptors in the mucles, physical sensations felt and generated by the performer
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extrinsic feedback
recieved from outside the performer, can come from coaches, spectators and video replays
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guidence
visual, verbal, manual and mechanical
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visual guidence
when a performer can see something e.g. a coach may show you something. this includes a demo of a technique by another person e.g. coach, footage of a performance via DVD, analysis software such as hudle, still images e.g. posters
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demos only work for a beginner if they are..
clear, quick, easy to undertsand and backed up with verbal feedback and a realitsic standard for the beginner to achieve
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demos are not used as much for elite...
can be used to highlite minor error in technique via softweare, visual and verbal are usually combined
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verbal guidence
invloves andother person usually coach telling the learner hat theyre doing right or wrong. can be used as a trigger
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verbal guidence may invlove
coach talking to performer,highlighting technique or coach highlighting key trigger words e.g. push when a performer hits the trampoline
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verbal guidence will only work for beginners if...
it relates to the visual guidence given, it is not too long or too complec so they can understand
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verbal guidence can work for elite performers, it might...
be longer and complex than for beginners, not need to be done with visual guidence as elite already know what the skill should look like
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manual and mechanical guidance
involves physically moving the performer munually i.e. a gym coach supporting gymnast or using mechanical aids e.g. arm bands. physical support allows performers to produce movement they may not have done before
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manual and mechanical guidance may invlove
physically guiding the performer or supporting performers for safety so moveent take place
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manual and mechanical guidance for beginners
can make them feel safe/supported, can help complete movements required, can help make them understand what the movement should feel like (intrinsic feedback), if they keep repeating wrong techniques this would become the norm.
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manual and mechanical guidance for elite
elite performers do not usually require this guidance unless flaws occur in performance
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visual guidance is used for beginners
verbal guidance is used for elite performers
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mechanical guidance is used more for beginners
beginners may need visual guidance first, then simple verbal instructions. they may also need manual/mechanical guidance
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display
data we recieve through our display and our senses
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infomation processing
the process performers go through making an act or decision
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input
filter what is not necessary, recieved through sense; sight, performers recieve lots of infomation from the senses
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decision making
data selected is analysed to select a response, performers access memories from past experiences, infomation is stored in the STM, STM can store 7 pieces of info for up to 60 seconds, if it is reherased it is then stored as LTM
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output
decision made acted upon, brain tells muscles to respond
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ltm
long term memory
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stm
short term memory
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feedback
data is recieved in response from output, future input for decisions, intrinsic, extrinsic
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postive feedback
about what was correct/good about the performance,
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positive feedback advantages
motivates the performer particually beginners, makes all performers feel like that had a succesful aspect to their performance, helps grow confidence
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positive feedback disadvantages
can emphasise positive aspects too highly and suggest that the overall performance was better than it actually was
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extrinsic feedback
feedback a performer recieves about their performance from outside themself, such as from a coach. can be tangable (object) or intagable (invisiable)
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extrinsic feedback adavatages
beginners need extrinsic feedback from coaches to be made aware of and learn basic skills and techniques, more experienced performers can combine extrinsic and intrinsic feedback to gain a full picture of their performance
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extrinsic feedback disadvantages
it can be difficult to get the advice and help a qualified coach, especially for beginners
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knowledge of performance
feedback on performance provides the performer with infomation about their performance generally and about their technique more specifically, both- everyone like to know how good they are
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knowledge of performance advantages
there are many aspects to one performance so the feedback can be very detailed for experienced performers or focus on one or two aspects of the performance for beginners
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negative feedback
feedback about what was incorrect or bad about the performance, not good for beginners
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negative feedback adavntages
enables a coach to provide guidance on how a skill should be performed correctly or better, it can help performers to prioritise the specific skills they need to improve
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negative feed back diadvantages
can become very demoralising particularly for beginners, too many negative comments can leave the performer struggling to know how to respond this is particularly the case for beginners
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intrinsic feedback
feedback a performer recieves about their performance from within. kineasthetic feedback is a from of intrinsic feedback
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intrinsic feedback advantages
good for elite, performers partcually experienced performers can make immediate adjustments
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intrinsic feedback disadvantages
require a high level of knowledge about a particular activity to be able to identify precisely what needs to be done to improve it, beginners are unlikely to have this level of knowledge
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knowledge of results
feedback on results provides the performer with infomation about their placing in a tournament or the time it took them to complete a race
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knowledge of results adavantages
gives the performer a quick measure of success, ideal for elite as they care more about placing, can be good for a bgeinner
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knowledge of results diaadavantages
it can be demotivating for other performers in situation where there can only be one winner
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arousal
a physical and mental state of alertness/readiness verying from deep sleep to intesne excitement or alertness
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arousal - physically
increase heart rate, cause performers to sweat more
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arousal - mental
panic if over aroused, loose concentration, these can work in positive ways if controlled by using specific strategies
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inverted U - invented by Yerkes and Dobson (1908)
visually shows how performers canbe over/underaroused at optimal level
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optimum level of arousal
most likely to perform at your best when you are at the optimum level of arousal
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as arousal increases
so does performance
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3 sections;
x axis - low, medium and high arousal level, y axis - low, medium and high
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different sports generally require different levels of arousal
fine movement skills generally require low levels of arousal, mind and body need to be calm to ensure co ordiantion and concenration required to perform the small precise movements are present
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controlling arousal
performers must be able to control arousal to ensure their perfromance is the best it can be, incorrect levels of arousal may result in mistakes being made due to under/over aroused
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3 main methods to control arousal
deep breathing (physical/somatic) , mental imagery (mental/cognitive), positive self talk (mental/cognitive)
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deep breathing technique
physical/somatic (using the body), top half of body relaxes, slow deep breaths should be used to allow performer to control arousal, used to reduce heart rate/to reduce nervous feeling, thoughts should be on the task in hand, used before perfomance
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mental rehersal
in perfoerms mind/cognitive, picuring themselves performing the skill perfectly before attempting, classed as imagery, used to focus/relax the mind, before/during performance, E.G. controlling arousal before kicking arugby conversion
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positive self talk
mental/cognitive, performers talk to themself in their head, usually positive (should be), reassure perfroemrs, relaxes mind/body, controlling arousal, motivational, E.G. golfers reassuring themselves that she can putt the hole
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aggression
thoughts of loosing control/getting angry, "DELIBERTAE INTENT TO HARM OR IJURE OTHERS AND CAN BE PHYSICAL/MENTAL", controlled in sport to win a point, 2 types
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direct agression
aimed at other players, involves physical contact, directly agression within rules of a game can be used to gain an adavantage and improve performance, E.G. rugby tackle
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indirect agression
no physical contact between players, taken out on an object to gain an advantage, no physical harm made, usually mental to make the oppenent feel less confident
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personality types
everyones personality is different but certain types can be grouped
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two pcommon personality types
introvert, extrovert
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what classifes a persons personality type
how much they need arousal for, whether they need others around them to stimulate them
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introvert
does not need high level of arousal, can become over aroused when stimulated, tend to be shy, quiet, thoughtful and solitary, individual sports self motivated do not need others motivation, tend to play sports with concentration/precision (fine skill
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extrovert
need high levels of arousal, lack concentration, seek exciting situations, they enjoy; interaction, being sociable, aroused by others, tend to play team sports when fast paced and concentration may be needed, often leaders
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motivation
the drive to succeed or desire to achieve or be inspird to do smething, essential to sporting success, without it a perfromer lacks drive and ambition to train or compete
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extrisnsic motivation
the drive to perform well or to win in order to gain external rewards such as prizes, trophies, praise or money. it comes from outside the performer
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extrisnsic motivation 2
can be a tangable object (something you can see/touch, E.G. certificate, can be intangable (something you cant see/touch) E.G. praise, players can become reliant on this motivation
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extrinsic motivation 3
could also result in unhealthy sense of pride or self satisfaction witch the performer thinkng their achieveents make them better or more important than people around them
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intrinsic motivation
the drive that comes within, a performer with intrinsic motivation wants to succeed because sucess gives them a sense of personal pride, accomplishment or satisfaction, their sense of worth increases
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intrinsic motivation 2
when it comes from within this can reslts in a higher level of personal achievement, intrinsic motivation is generally seen as more effective than extrinsic as it leads to continued effoert and partificipation,
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intrinsic motivation 3
intrinsic performers are more likley to keep going through difficult times
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5 ethnic groups
white british, balck carribean, black african, asian
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socio economic groups
you economic background can be a factor
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factors affecting participation
involvement in sport can be expensive, transport to training and competition can be expensive = if you have the money to fund these things you have an advantage, you also have access to better equipment, facilaies and coaches
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social groupings
gender, age, ethniciety, disability and family, friends, peers
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peers
peer groups are one of the greatest infulences upon you and can both have a positive/negative effect
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if peers are activley involved in sport and physical activity
this is likely to have a positive effect as you will want to join them
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if yout peer groups are not in favour of regular physical activity or have a negative view on pe lessons
it is likely that you would go along with these views toos
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peer group pressure
difficult to resist, young people find shapes, attitudes and behaviour may change
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family
levels of support that famalies may be willing to give
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financial support
kit, equipment, travel,coaching
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could become role models
children may want to follow in their tradition
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parents may not be willing to provide financial support
family memebers may have had negative expereinces at sport that has ptut them off
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gender
women now have more access to sporting opportunities, this includes performing or becomming an official/manager
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increase in women in sport has occured because;
traditional views of women in sport have chnaged, more opportunities for women to participate, schools, competitiors, other roles beyond performing, equal opportunities law, more female role models, more female sport covered in media
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disability
a physical or mental impeirment that has a sustantial and long term effect on a persons ability to carry out normal daily activities
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NGBS make every effort to ensure their sports are accessible for all
there are limited coaches and teachers in disability sport
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facilaties do not always allow for participation in sport..
therefore people find it difficult to join clubs to participate, faciliaties are improving
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disabled people can also find transport difficult
limiting them to where they can go and aso are reliant on disability benefits so may not have as much disposable income
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increased media
means there are more role models than there were, this means more people with diabilities are involved in sport
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commercialisation
the management or explotation of a person, organisation or activity in a way designed to make profit
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media had played a central role in commercialisation
TV companies pay huge sums of money to brocast events, more exposure in the mdeia gives a particular sport the greater the potential for businesses to earn money from it
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media
covers a divese range of technologies of a mass communication
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television
brocast are free to air and pay per view on tv and many sport channels
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radio
portable you can listen on the move or at an event
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internet/social media
can watch live TV and read newspapers. clubs, performers also have twitter/instagram accounts
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print media
newspapers/magazines have sports articles and people can read about specific sports
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outdoor billboards
used at events to advertise products and services to large audidences
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sponderships
financial, clothing, equipment, footwear, facilities
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financial
can help to pay for day to day living, training and competition costs in return the sponders name will be linked in some way to the performer
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clothing, equipment, footwear
companies that make these give their products to peformers for free, whlst they are playing/performing. companies also pay for logos to appear on the clothes peformers wear and the equimpment they use whilst competing
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facilities
sponsered facilities are often names after the sponser and can include basic training facilities sponsered by a local company right up to a stadium used by premiership football clubs sponsered by a global company
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impacts of sponsership and media - performer +
more moeny to pay higher wages, more money to pay for better training programs and coaching, being in th media spot light can turn them into role models and heros
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impacts of sponsership and media - performer -
more competitions means more training which could lead to injury, being in the mdeia spotlight can mean hat mistakes made can become very public, sponsers make demands about how to behave, can conflict what they want to do this may disprupt training
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impacts of sponsership and media - sport +
more money available for grass roots participation support (younger kids), more role models who are ambassadors for the sport are created (audience)
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impacts of sponsership and media - sport -
more people stay at home and watch TV, minority sports and women get less coverage, rules are changed to meet requirements of media and sponsers, tickets and sport related merchandise is expensive
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impacts of sponsership and media - official +
being in the media spot light can turn them into role models and heros
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impacts of sponsership and media - official -
being in the mdeia spotlight can mean hat mistakes made can become very public, strong media precence can increase pressure to make correct decisions and therefore reduce enjoyment
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impacts of sponsership and media - audience +
media provides info about results, fixtures and rankings, money has been spent on technology to improve viewing instant replays and close up action views, more competitions mean more opportunity to watch more sport live
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impacts of sponsership and media - audience -
more people stay at home and watch TV, tickets and sport related merchandise is expensive
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impacts of sponsership and media - performer -
there is intense scrunity on private life, more on amily life for women than sporting ability, women are paid less than men because to date commercilisation has focused on men
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what would happen if we didnt have technology in sport
we would have no instant replays, third umpires, TMOs (TV MATCH OFFICIALS) or even microphones
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who uses technology
performers, coaches and officials
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what is good about using technology
trys to improve performance, improve experienceof spectators and improves a sport
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what is a critasism of technology
it can slow down the speed of the game, E.G. reviewing a decisionbut for most peopleit makes watching the sport more enjoyable as they can see correct decisions being made
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technology examples - hawkeye
a computer system which several cameas track the flight and trajectory of a ball, used in tennis and cricket to aid with decison making, allows for umpires/referees decisions to be aided if the call was too close E.G. in a world cup final
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technology examples - performance aids
includes wearable technologies that moniter fitness or records a performers movements on a pitch/field, can be softwear programmes like dartfish/kandle, these use cameras to capture movement
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performance enhancing drugs
prohibited substances, alter biochemical balance in our body, can affect performers ability, unfair advantage
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divided into 3 groups - banned substances
stimulants, narcotic analgesics, anabolic agents, peptide hormones and diuretics
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divided into 3 groups - methods
blood doping
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divided into 3 groups - legally prescribed drugs
beta blockers
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stimulants
affects CNS, increase mental/physical alertness, reduces fatigue E.G caffines, amphetamines, cocaine and ephedrine
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stimulant side effects
head aches, blood pressure, stroke, irreglar heartbeat, anxiety and tremors, can be addictive, mask signs of serious injuries, poor judgement -> accidents
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narcotic analegesics
reduce feeling of pain, morphine, mask pain, allows to train harder/more
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narcotic analegesics side effects
respiratory depression, slowed breathing, increased pain threshold, constipation, apathy (`cant be bothered`) E.G. long distance runners
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anabolic agents
most commonly abused in sport, steriods, artificial hormones 9mimic testosterone), promote muscle/bone growth, reduce recovery time, used by performers who need; strength, power and muscular endurance
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anabolic agents side effects
heart disease, injury, infertility, achne, depression, agressive behaviour
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peptide hormones
strimulate production of naturally occuring hormones, EPO is produced by the kidneys to regulate red blood cells, -> increase RBC= oxygena capacity increases, inproves aerobic athletes, allows to perform longer, shoren recovery E.G. marathon runners
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diuretics
removes fluid from body = increasing uriation, help looseweight quickly E.G. boxing, known as `masking agents`, reduces concentrationof other prohibited drugs
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diuretics side effects
dehydration, kidney failure, muscles cramps
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blood doping
remove blood -> store -> wait to be reproduced -> transfusion, more red blood cells = more oxyhaemoglobin so we can carry on for longer periods of time, endurance athletes benefit E.G. Chris Froome
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blood doping side effects
bloods becomes thinner (viscous), increase heart attack, infection, embolism (blood vessel clot), stroke
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beta blockers
reduce heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, reduce side affects of adrenaline, improves fine motor control, steady nerve, calming/relaxing
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beta blockers side effects
nausea, tiredness, weakness, increase in heart problems
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percieved advantages of taking PEDS
increase sucess, sucess leads to fame/fortune, some performers = level playing field (taking drugs and not getting caught would be a disadvantage if they wernt taking them)
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disadvantages of PEDS
cheating and unethical, if caught medals/prize money is stripped, automatic ban, endorsement/sponsership loss, side effects, reputation damage (irreparable0, creadibility of sport is called into question
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hooliganism
the desordely, aggressive and often violent behaviour by spectators at sporting events
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home field advantage
gaining an advantage by being familiar with surroundings
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hooliganism - positive
creates energetic atmosphere e.g. chanting, helps to boost home field advantage for home team e.g. positive song
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hooliganism - negative
can boil over cause crowd trouble e.g. violence, pressure on performers e.g. booing, decreased spectator numbers e.g. violnce, cost implications e.g. repair
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hooliganism causes
big rivalry, hype (media), alcohol/drugs, gang culture (pre-planned), fustration, display of masculinity
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combating hooliganism
prevent alcohol consumption, close pubs in area, early kick offs, no alcohol allowed in ground, improve security, CCTV, more police/stewards
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all seater stadiums
imrpoves fans/icket distribution, reduces movement, cost implications
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punishing teams
fines, bans, playing behind closed doors (no fans in stadium = loss of motivation) unfair on well behaved fans,loss of income
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travel restrictions/ banning orders
banning travel abroad, hard to prosecute/create or manage list, seregation of fans, home/away fans kept apart with security/fencing, educating spectators
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capaign
E.G. endorsements from high profile performers to encourage good behaviour/condem hooliganism amongst spectators -> cost implications to create campaign
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sportsmenship
appropriate, polite and fair behaviour whilst articipating in a sporting event
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gamesmanship
the use of dubious methods that are not strictly legal, to gain an advantage
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etiquette
unwritten rules about player or spectator behaviour
225 of 227
contract to compete
nt written, players agree to play by the rules, play to win and allow the opposition a free and fair oppourtunity to play and win
226 of 227
BMI
30 = obese, 40 > = servely obese
227 of 227

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the ability to be able to meet/cope with the demands of the enviroment

Back

fitness

Card 3

Front

involves physical,mental and social elements, the mix of these gives people a sense of being happy and healthy

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

refers to all body systems working well, so you are free from injury or illness

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

prevent the onset of obesity, reduces the risk of illness e.g. diabetes, improves efficiency of the body systems, you can carry out tasks without becoming tired

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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