GCSE PE ....


Factors Affecting Performance


Parents can encourage their children to take up sports

Some sports may need special clothing or equipment, so its usually the parents who pay for these which could get expensive.

Many children are taken to and from activities by parents so there is transport costs 


Most people have a group of friends they spend most of their time with.

If all your friends play football, you are likely to play football .

If all your friends say sport is rubbish, you are less likely to play it.

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Leisure & Recreation

Most of our time is taken up by things that need to be done, such as social duties (chores, work, school), and bodily needs (eating, sleeping)

Our leisure time is the remaining time, where we can do as we please.

Leisure time is increasing due to:

1. Less working time – working week is shorter, holidays are longer

2. Retiring earlier – more people taking early retirement

3. More unemployment – due to more jobs being taken over by machines

4. Machines helping with household chores – washing machines, vacuums

As people’s leisure time increases, so does the demand for facilities and services. There has been a big growth in the leisure industry in recent years due to this.

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Schools have a big role in encouraging young people to take up sport. If you enjoy sport at school, you are more likely to take it up when you leave.

PE teachers can affect your attitude towards sport. A good teacher can build your confidence, identify your potential, make the activities enjoyable and provide coaching.

Schools introduce you to a wide variety of activities, and teach you the basic skills which you can build on. The National Curriculum sets out the minimum amount of sport each students should take part in, but some schools offer examination courses, extra-curricular activities and leadership awards.

There are many other roles you can join in with, not just taking part. These include officials, coaches, scorers, captain, leaders, observer, and organiser.

Schools may give you access to facilities and IT equipment, and can also have links with local sports clubs.

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Health, Fitness and Performance/Diet

Carbohydrates - Provide energy

Simple carbs

Found in sweets, jam, cakes.

You shouldn’t eat too much of these.

Complex carbs

Found in bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, cereal.

These should make up the main part of your meal.

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Health, Fitness and Performance/Diet

Fat - Provide energy and keeps us warm.

Saturated fats

Found mainly in animal products

Monosaturated fats

Found in many foods, like olive oil

Polyunsaturated fats

Found in some margarines and oils, and oily fish

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Health, Fitness and Performance/Diet

Fibre - Needed to keep your digestive system working properly


Lots of fibre in fruit and veg

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Health, Fitness and Performance/Diet

Minerals- Builds healthy bones and teeth

Help in various chemical reactions


Calcium –needed for strong bones and teeth, and muscle contraction. Found in green veg, milk, cheese and some fish.

Iron – handy for haemoglobin in red blood cells. Found in liver, beans and green veg

Iodine – needed for thyroid hormones. Found in sea food.

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Health, Fitness and Performance/Diet

Proteins -Helps body grow and repair itself

Found in foods such as





and soya beans

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Health, Fitness and Performance/Diet

Vitamins-Help bones,skin and teeth grow

Needed for the body’s chemical reactions

Fat-Soluble Vitamins - Can be stored in the body

Vitamin A –useful for night vision and growth. Found in vegetables, eggs and liver.

Vitamin D –strengthens bones. Made by the skin in sunshine, and found in milk, fish, liver and eggs.

Water-Soluble Vitamins  - Can’t store, so need to be eaten regularly.

 Vitamin C –good for skin, connective tissue and gums. Found in fruit and veg, particularly citrus fruits.

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Health, Fitness and Performance/Diet


Water is needed in lots of chemical reactions in the body. It’s lost in your breath, sweat, urine and faeces.

If you don’t drink enough to replace what your body uses or loses, you will suffer from dehydration, and won’t perform as well.

If you drink too much, your kidneys will produce more urine to get rid of the excess.

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Diet - summary

Balanced Diet

Contains all the nutrients you need in the right amounts for good health

A good way to achieve this is to eat a varied diet, with plenty of fruit and veg, but not too much fat

Including food from each of the groups below can help with a balanced diet:

- Bread, cereal, potatoes, nuts, pulses

- Fruit and veg

- Meat and fish

- Dairy

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Diet- examples

Correct Food for Exercise

Sporting Examples

Different sports place different demands on the body, so athletes need to eat specific foods.

Weightlifters / sprinters need muscle power, so need lots of protein for muscle growth (usain bolt)

Gymnasts need to be strong, but also light, so need a good balance of carbs, proteins and fat (beth tweddle)

Marathon runners need endurance, so need lots of carbs for energy(paula radcliffe)

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Eating around Activity

You must eat at the right times if you want to perform well!

Before an activity - Top athletes increase their carb intake a few days before the event. This increases the amount of glycogen stored in the muscles, giving them plenty of energy. This is called carbohydrate loading.

During an activity - You should not eat during exercise, but should definitely drink to replace the lost fluid.

After an activity - Continue to replace lost fluid, but do not eat immediately. After a couple of hours, you should start eating to replace spent energy.

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Fitness for Physical Activities

The Skeleton

Support -Rigid frame for the rest of the body/Supports the soft tissue /Without the skeleton, we would collapse

Shape- Our body shape is due to the skeleton

Protection- Bones are tough /They protect delicate organs, like the brain, heart and lungs

Movement -There are many joints/ Muscles, attached by tendons can move different bones

Making Blood Cells- Long bones contain bone marrow, which makes the new blood cells

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Bones are formed by the ossification of cartilage.

All bones start off as cartilage in the womb, and gradually turn into bone. They have a tough outer layer called the periosteum. Some types of bone are light, but tough. These tend to contain red marrow, where red blood cells are made. The marrow cavity contains yellow marrow, where white blood cells are made.

There are 4 different types of bone:

1. Long…like the femur

2. Short…like the carpels and tarsels

3. Flat…like some bones in the skull

4.  Irregular…like the vertebrae

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Muscle Types

There are 3 types of muscle:

1. Cardiac Muscle

Only found in the heart    Contract and relax continuously   Work without conscious effort

2. Involuntary Muscle

Around organs like the intestines             Work without conscious effort

3. Voluntary Muscles

Attached to the skeleton         Under your control

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Muscle Contraction

Muscle Contraction- To make a joint move in two directions, you need two muscles that pull in the opposite direction.

Antagonistic muscles

Pairs pairs of muscles that work against one another

One muscle contracts (shortens) whilst the other relaxes (lengthens)

The muscle that is doing the work (contracting) is the agonist

The relaxing muscle is the antagonist........(continued on next card)

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Muscle Contraction continued

Synergists muscles

These hold the stationary bone still, so only one bone moves

e.g. when the bicep contracts to bend the elbow, synergists stop the shoulder moving.


Isometric Contraction

The muscle stays the same length, so nothing moves

Isotonic Contraction

The muscle changes length, so moves

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Muscle Fatigue – if you use your muscles a lot and they don’t get enough oxygen, they feel tired or fatigued

Muscle Atrophy – if you don’t use your muscles, they become smaller

Cramp – a sudden contraction of a muscle that won’t relax

Muscles never fully relax, they always have some tension in them. This is called muscle tone, which is improved by regular exercise.

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Different types of connective tissue join muscles to bones:

There are 3 different types of joints:

1. Fixed (Immovable) - Also known as fibrous joints. Hold the bones together, like between the bones in the skull.

2. Slightly Movable -Also known as cartilaginous joints. Each bone rests on a cartilage, like in the vertebrae. Ligaments stop the bones from moving too far.

3. Freely Movable - Also known as synovial joints. These contain synovial fluid inside the synovial membrane, which lubricates the joints, like in the shoulder.

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Cartilage - Forms a cushion between the bone, to prevent them rubbing together

Ligaments - Similar to a strong piece of string, that hold bones together

Tendons - Attach muscle to bone or to other muscle

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Joint Movement

Joint Movement

There are 5 types of joint movement:

1. Extension – opening a joint

2. Flexion – closing a joint

3. Adduction – moving towards an imaginary centre line

4. Abduction – moving away from an imaginary centre line

5. Rotation – turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwise

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Movable Joints

There are 5 types of movable joints:

1. Ball and Socket - Found in the hip and shoulder. Can move an all directions, and rotate, allowing all 5 types of movement.

2. Hinge - Found in the elbow and knee. Can go backwards and forwards, but not sideways, allowing flexion and extension

3. Pivot - Found in the neck, between the axis and atlas bones, allowing only rotation

4. Condyloid - Found in the wrist. Can move forwards and backwards, left to right, but not rotate, allowing flexion, extension, adduction and abduction

5. Gliding - Found between the carpels or tarsels. Can move a little in all directions by sliding over one another

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Breathing in (inspiration) The intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract to widen the chest cavity.

Air is pushed into the lungs by the air pressure outside

 Breathing out (expiration) The intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax to make the chest cavity smaller

The lungs are squeezed and air is forced out

 When you exercise, your body needs more oxygen to make the muscles work.

Therefore, you breath more quickly and your heart pumps faster, so the red blood cells can travel faster to deliver more oxygen. This increases your O2 uptake.

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There are millions of alveoli in our lungs, where gaseous exchange takes place.

When we breath, Carbon dioxide (CO2) moves from the blood into the alveoli. Oxygen (O2)moves to the red blood cells, which contain haemoglobin.

This combines with the O2 to make oxyhaemoglobin. The red blood cells carry O2 around the body, taking it to where its needed.

Whilst this is taking place, the blood collects the CO2 to take it back to the lungs.

The air we breath out has less O2, because the body has used some of it up through the respiration process.

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Blood Vessels

There are 3 types of blood vessel:

1. Arteries

Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. Have thick, strong, elastic walls to cope with the pressure. Small arteries are called arterioles.

2. Veins

Carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Have thinner walls, because the blood is a lower pressure. Have valves to keep the blood going on the right direction. Small veins are called venules

3. Capillaries

Carry food and oxygen directly to the tissues, and take the waste away from them. Very small, with very thin walls.

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more definitions

Red Blood Cells

Carry oxygen around the body.

They have no nucleus

White Blood Cells

Fight against disease by destroying bacteria, toxins and foreign microbes


Carries everything in the bloodstream, including cells, digested food, water, hormones


Small fragments of cells with no nucleus, which help to clot wounds

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Respiratory System

Respiratory System

This is everything we use to breathe and supply our bodies with oxygen.

We breath air into our lungs.

Oxygen is then transported around our body by our blood.

Air passes through the nose or mouth into the trachea

The trachea splits into 2 tubes called the bronchi, one going to each lung

The bronchi split into smaller tubes, called the bronchioles

The bronchioles end up at small bags called the alveoli, where gaseous exchange takes place.

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Circulatory System

Circulatory System

This has 3 functions:

1. Transport

Moving things around the body in the bloodstream, such as O2, nutrients, water and waste

2. Controls Body Temperature

More blood near the skin cools the body quicker

3. Protection

Moving antibodies around the body to fight disease.

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Humans have a double circulation. Each time blood goes around your body it goes through the heart twice (double circulation).

This happens because there are 2 circuits:

1. The systemic circuit – this is the main circuit which carries oxygenated blood around the body in the arteries, and deoxygenated blood back to the heart along the veins

2. The pulmonary circuit – this includes the heart and lungs, and carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated.


Oxygenated blood – has more O2, and found in all arteries (except pulmonary artery)

Deoxygenated blood – has less O2, and is found in all veins (except pulmonary vein)

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blood pressure

Blood Pressure - Blood pressure gives us two readings:

1. Systolic pressure – pressure of the blood in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts

2. Diastolic pressure – pressure of the blood in the arteries when the left ventricle relaxes

It can be affected by many things:

- Age – increases with age

- Gender – generally higher in men

- Exercise – reduces in long term increases in short term

- Stress – increases

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high blood pressure



High Blood Pressure

If your blood pressure remains high, you could be at risk from the following:

Angina – sharp pains in the chest, caused by the heart not getting enough oxygen

Heart attacks – the heart stopping because it is starved of oxygen

Strokes – damage to the brain due to no Oxygen

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Question 1


What is the movement called when you move your arm away from your body
abduction or adduction?

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it is ABDUCTION which moves the arm away from the body.

TIP: A way to remember is

ABDUCTION – take the “AB” from the word to represent AWAY from BODY

ADDUCTION – take the “ADD” from the word to represent ADDING to the body.

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The patella is a flat (or plate) bone.

Some people say that it is an irregular bone because it is not a perfectly flat shape. However, irregular bones usually have projections (bits that stick out).  

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Circumduction is a movement in which flexion, abduction, extension and adduction movements are combined in sequence.

Therefore, any joint at which flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction may occur is a joint at which circumduction may occur. The most commonly used example is the shoulder joint (ball and socket joint).

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Question 2



What is circumduction and what joint allows this to happen?

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Question 4



What is the definition of muscular strength?

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Muscular strength is the ability to exert an external force against a resistance.

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Question 5



What is the process of bone growth called?

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The process of bone growth is called Ossification.

Cartilage makes up virtually the whole of the skeleton when we are first born. As we grow, this cartilage is gradually replaced by bone.

In long bones, the cartilage in the shaft of the bone is the first area to be converted, followed by the cartilage in the heads (epiphysis and diaphysis).

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Health and fitness


Health: “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organisation)


Fitness =general or specific

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General Fitness: fit for everyday activities.

- Strength

- Stamina

- Speed

- Suppleness

Also included are:

Cardiovascular endurance - muscles get enough oxygen to work properly

Muscular endurance - muscles don’t get tired too quickly

Good body composition - neither too thin or too fat

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Specific Fitness = fitness to play sport at a high level.

Agility - to change direction quickly

Balance - so you don’t fall over

Co-ordination - to move accurately and smoothly

Explosive Strength - strength combined with speed

Reactions - to respond quickly

Good Timing - to act at the right moment

Cardiovascular Fitness – keeping muscles supplied with oxygen

Muscular Fitness – you can push, pull, throw, lift very hard or very quickly.

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Exercise helps physically, mentally and socially.

Physical Exercise

Improves body shape, muscle tone and posture. Strengthens the bones, reduces the chance of illness and increases life expectancy. Increases strength, endurance, flexibility and overall fitness.

Mental Exercise

Gives you a challenge. Helps deal with tension and stress. Helps you to feel better about yourself, and increases self-confidence.

Social Exercise

Improves teamwork and cooperation. Can help you meet new people and lead to new friendships. Can improve your image and bring in money.

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Effects of Exercise

Heart rate - When you stop exercising, your heart rate falls back to normal resting rate. The fitter you are, the quicker it falls

Recovery time  - This depends on how hard the activity was and how fit you are.

Glycogen stores  - It takes up to 48 hours to replace the glycogen lost through exercising.

Lactic acid removal  - Oxygen is still needed when you stop exercise to help get rid of lactic acid.

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Circulatory & Respiratory Systems

Circulatory System

Aerobic training can help in the following ways:

- Your body makes more red blood cells, so it can transport more O2

- Your arteries get bigger so your blood pressure falls

- More capillaries form in the muscles, so O2 is delivered better

- Your heart gets bigger, and the walls get thicker

- After exercising, your heart rate falls back to normal quicker

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Respiratory System

Aerobic training can help in the following ways:

- The diaphragm and intercostal muscles get stronger, making the chest cavity larger

- Therefore, more air can be breathed in, so your vital capacity increases

- More capillaries grow around the alveoli, so more CO2 and O2 can be swapped at any time

- Gas exchange is quicker, so vigorous exercise can be kept up

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Muscular Endurance - This is when your muscles can keep exerting a force for a long period of time. When your muscles get tired, they start to feel heavy or weak, and muscle fatigue sets in.Slow twitch fibres get tired less quickly. To improve your muscular endurance, muscles need to get stronger. Weight training is a good way of doing this.

Cardiovascular Endurance  - This is how good you are at keeping your muscles supplied with O2. As your muscles work harder, they need more O2, so your breathing and heart rate get faster to move more O2 around the body. The more efficient the Cardiovascular system is, the slower the pulse rate will be, and the quicker it will return to normal after exercise. To improve your Cardiovascular endurance, you need to work your heart and lungs hard for at least 15 minutes. To do this, you should be working at 60-90% of your maximum heart rate. To work this out minus your age from 220.

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Fats, carbohydrates and proteins give you energy.

The amount of energy needed to keep the heart beating and the body breathing is the basal metabolic rate (BMR) .

If you eat more than your body needs, the extra energy is stored as adipose tissue (fat), and you gain weight. If you eat less then you need, your body uses up the stores of adipose tissue, and you lose weight. Anorexia is a mental illness, when sufferers refuse to eat and therefore become dangerously thin. They often have a distorted image of themselves, thinking they need to lose weight.

There are 2 key ways to lose weight:

1. Eating a balanced diet

2. Get plenty of exercise

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Principles of Training

Warm Up & Cool Down

Warming up and cooling down are vital to every training session.

Warm Up

Gradually gets your body ready for exercise. Increases the body temperature and blood flow to the muscles. Stretches the muscles, mobilises the joints and increases range of movement.Concentrates the mind on training

Cool Down 

Gets your body back to normal state.Helps replace the oxygen debt in the muscles, getting rid of any lactic acid, which could cause muscle stiffness later on. Gets rid of extra blood in your muscles to prevent pooling in your veins. This can make you feel dizzy and weak if exercise is stopped suddenly

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A training programme must suit the person it is for.

Many programmes are used using FITT

Frequency – how often you should exercise.

Intensity – how hard you exercise.

Time – how long you should exercise.

Type – what exercise you should use

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Types of Training

Circuit Training

Continuous Training

Fartlek Training

Interval Training

Weight Training

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Physiological Factors - Age

Strength - You do not reach your maximum strength until you are around 20.This is when you are fully grown. In your 20s and 30s it is still easy to build muscle. After this, protein levels and muscle mass falls, and strength declines,its harder to build muscle.

Oxygen capacity - falls as you get older, less oxygen can be taken to the muscles

Injury and disease - Older people are more prone to injury, and it takes them longer to recover from one.Older people generally suffer from more diseases

Reaction time - These get slower as you get older

Flexibility - You are most flexible in your teens

Experience - This is a vital factor in sport. As you get older, you become more experienced

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Competitions usually split men and women, along with young and old.

Men and women have different bodies. Men have longer, heavier bone structure, Boys mature at around 20,Men are generally stronger, Men have bigger muscles, due to higher testosterone levels

Women have a wider, fatter pelvis (better for child birth),Women generally have more body fat than men,The menstrual cycle can affect performance, Girls mature earlier than boys, Girls reach physical maturity at 16 or 17, Women are generally more flexible, This is partly due to them having less muscle

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1. Ectomorph (thin body shape) tall , lean

- Narrow shoulders, hips and chest, Not much fat or muscle, Long, thin arms and legs,Thin face, high forehead - e.g. high jump, long distance running

2. Endomorph (dumpy) round

Wide hips, but narrow shoulders, Lot of fat on body, arms and legs,Ankles and wrists slim - e.g. wrestling, shot putting

3. Mesomorph (muscular)  Strength  

Wide shoulders, narrow hips, Muscular body, Strong arms and thighs,Not much body fat - e.g. swimming, gymnastics

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Tend to choose sports with more of  these attributes - Individual performances -Concentration - Precision - Less pain - Calm - Self-motivation - Thinking - Intricate skills - Less arousal


Tend to choose sports with more of  these attributes- Excitement - Activity - Team involvement - Arousal - Speed - More pain - Simple skills - Less concentration - Less thinking

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Injury Prevention


1.Take off any jewellery 2. Use the right equipment 3. Be aware of possible dangers 4. Use correct technique 5. Warm up before activity 6. Know and follow the rules 7. Wear suitable footwear 8. Use protective equipment if necessary 9. Use officials to ensure fair play 10. Cool down after activity 11. Give yourself time to recover before playing again.

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This is a good treatment for all soft tissue injuries.

It reduces pain, swelling and bruising.

R – rest. Stop straight away. If you carry on it will make the injury worse

I – ice. Apply ice to the injury. This makes the blood vessels contract to reduce the bleeding and swelling

C – compression. Wrapping the injury will also help to reduce the swelling, but don’t make it so tight that the blood is prevented from circulating

E – elevation. Support the injury at a raised level (above the heart), so the flow of blood is reduced because it has to flow against gravity

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1. TV and radio 2. Cable and satellite – pay-per-view events 3. Ceefax and teletext 4. Internet 5. Newspapers and magazines 6. Books and films 7. Mobile technology

Media coverage depends a lot on technology. Apart from making the above forms possible, it also improves things with instant replays, photo finishes, underwater cameras, split times and timings.

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- Money – media companies pay for the rights to show a sport. Sponsorship will increase massively if that sport is popularised by the media - Education – people learn about rules and tactics for a sport - Role Models – young people aspire to be like these - Inspiration – brings sports to people who may not otherwise experience it, which can encourage participation - Aid to Coaching – lets you study the performance of others


- Bias – only the really popular sports get much coverage, so smaller sports don’t get much sponsorship - Lack of Attendance- watching it on TV means you re not at the game, which reduces ticket sales. - Overload - some think there is too much sport on TV - 'Open Season' – stars are hounded by the media - Demands to Comply – media impose rules on sports to make them more exciting. Golden goal in football, tie breaks in tennis

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Amateur & Professional sportspeople


- Don’t get paid - Take part because the enjoy it - Hockey is a sport that is totally amateur - Clubs have to pay for the hire of facilities - Players of the clubs pay membership fees - Some clubs get sponsorship from small local businesses


- Get paid for playing - Their full time job - TV and radio pay massive amounts for the rights to show the event - They sell merchandise - Sponsorship

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Question 1

What two factors does the training threshold rate refer to?

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The safe level for training; the effective level for training.

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Question 2

Which method of calculating the TTR is most appropriate to strength training?

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60% method

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Aerobic & anaerobic activity

Aerobic activity
If a lot of oxygen is present, then energy production is carried out aerobically.As this type of physical activity requires large amounts of oxygen, the level of work must be of low intensity, but it may continue for a long period of time.

Long distance running is an aerobic activity.

Anaerobic activity
If there is a shortage of oxygen, then energy production is carried out anaerobically. This type of physical work is usually of high intensity, lasts for a short period of time, requires a great deal of energy, but happens so fast that there is not enough time to get lots of oxygen to the muscles. If anaerobic activity takes place over a long period of time, the muscles soon become exhausted.

The 100 m sprint is an anaerobic activity.

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Question 1

Give three reasons for doing a warm-up before starting physical activity.

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Prepare the mind and body for work, increase blood supply to the muscles, prepare the joints to work over a greater range.

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Question 2

What are the main parts of a training session?

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Warm-up, training activity, cool down, rest.

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Question 3

Explain why rest days are important in training programmes.

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So that muscles can recover from minor injuries.

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thanks, really helpful:)

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