French History revision notes - everything you need to know

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  • Created on: 31-12-12 11:08
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Bourgeoisie ­ Middle Class.
Emigrés ­ Nobility that left France during the revolution, they returned when Louis XVIII
came to the throne.
Pays Legal ­ Upper middle class. (able to vote)
Franchise ­ People with the right to vote. (suffrage)
Legitimists ­ Supporters of the Bourbon Monarchy.
Monarchists - Supporters of the king or queen.
Republicans - Opponents of the monarchy. (supporters of elected leadership)
Bonapartists ­ Supporters on Napoleon Bonaparte.
Liberals ­ Believe in freedom of the individual.
Ancien Regime ­ Political/social regime in France under the Bourbon monarchy before the
1789 Revolution.
National Assembly ­ Law making body. (Government)
Constitution ­ Set of rules for Government. (setting up powers & duties)
National Guard ­ Middle class citizens army, a sign of the peoples power that they should
maintain their own order.
Louis XVIII 1814-1826
The Charter 1814:
-Equality before the Law
-Fair taxation
-Careers open to all
-Freedom of the individual
-Freedom of religion.
-Roman catholic religion is still the state religion
-Freedom of press
-Abolishment of conscription
-The charter mainly appealed to the pays legal (upper middle class ­ 0.05% of the population)
-The French system established in 1814 borrowed heavily from the ways of Britain, but there were
big differences:
-Although parliament was made up of two houses: The Chamber of Peers and the Chamber
of Deputies, its powers were limited and it was made clear that the ministers chose by the
King didn't have to reflect the view of the chambers.
-Only Louis could initiate legislation and could veto any amendments to bills proposed by the
-Franchise was still restricted to those paying 300 francs a year in direct taxation
-He could dissolve parliament when he wished.
-Nominated members to the Chamber of Peers
-Still controlled all military and civil appointments.
-Therefore, Louis had a lot of power, although not unlimited.

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Effects of the Charter
-Made Louis XIII's return more popular because he prevented the possibility of the return of the
absolute Monarchy and gave guarantees of the basic liberties and property rights which made the
restoration acceptable.
-However, the Charter was still disliked as the government was still undemocratic ­ only 88,000/29
million people had the right to vote.…read more

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The Ultras and the problems they caused for Louis
The Ultras used their power and influence to gain position in the new Chamber of Deputies and in
1815 they dominated the newly elected Chamber ­ Chambre introuvable ­ it was more Royalist that
Louis himself which he thought was impossible.
The Ultras hoped to get rid of the Charter and of Parliament.
Wanted to return the lands lost by the aristocrats and the Churn in the revolution.…read more

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Charles X 1824-1830
Formerly the Comte d'artois Charles X came into power after the death of his brother Louis XVIII . He
inherited Villele as his chief minister, supported by a chamber that held an Ultra attitude, he had high
hopes of carrying out policies he had believed in for so long.…read more

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Reasons for the 1830 Revolution:
Short-term causes:
-March 1827 the National Guard was got rid of after a review by the King.
-Growing hatred for Villeles unpopular ministry ­ campaign against him in both the
press and from the Chamber of Peers.
-A liberal political society was created in 1827 by Guizot which increased opposition.
-Charles X tried to alter the Chambers to win back support but failed.…read more

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Louis Philippe
-After the revolution the bourgeoisie had provoked, they had to act quickly for it to benefit them.
Thiers who had provided the leadership had the walls of Paris covered with posters in favour of Louis
Philippe who had: Royal claim to the throne and had fought for the French revolution could maintain
the monarchy in France as well as win the support of both the middle-class and lower class.…read more

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How Louis Philippe governed France:
Laffitte Led the first ministerial team. He regarded the July revolution as a new beginning and
wanted further reform. Continued rioting and disorder made Louis Philippe decide he needed a more
conservative leader.
Perier replaced Laffitte. Perier was a traditional liberal and saw the revolution as nothing more
than a change of monarch and bringing in more sincere application of the Charter.…read more

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War broke out between Mehemet Ali and the Turks, with Britain and Russia supporting the Turkish
while France favoured the Egyptians. Thiers threatened war against major powers if they moved to
subdue Mehemet Ali.
Spanish Marriages 1846 threatened anglo-french relations. Guizot seized the opportunity to
marry the Spanish Queens younger sister to Louis Philippes son.…read more

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The revolution of July 1830 brought to power Louis-Philippe and established a regime
variously known as the July Monarchy, the Bourgeois Monarchy, or the Orleanist Monarchy.
The wealthy middle class believed they had a monarch they could control though Louis
Philippe was determined not to be a puppet. During this period France underwent the
beginnings of an industrial revolution and for the first time the condition of the industrial
masses became a political issue.…read more

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Louis Napoleon was helped by the assembly who were swaying to royalist sympathies and in 1850
disenfranchised almost three million of France's poorest voters. He restored universal male
suffrage in time for the plebiscite on December 20, in which he asks for dictatorial powers as
president for a span of ten years. Seven and a half million voters approve of his plans, with less than a
tenth of that number voting against.…read more


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