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Bourgeoisie ­ Middle Class.
Emigrés ­ Nobility that left France during the revolution, they returned when Louis XVIII
came to the throne.
Pays Legal ­ Upper middle class. (able to vote)
Franchise ­ People with the right to vote. (suffrage)
Legitimists ­ Supporters of the Bourbon Monarchy.
Monarchists - Supporters…

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Effects of the Charter
-Made Louis XIII's return more popular because he prevented the possibility of the return of the
absolute Monarchy and gave guarantees of the basic liberties and property rights which made the
restoration acceptable.
-However, the Charter was still disliked as the government was still undemocratic ­…

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The Ultras and the problems they caused for Louis

The Ultras used their power and influence to gain position in the new Chamber of Deputies and in
1815 they dominated the newly elected Chamber ­ Chambre introuvable ­ it was more Royalist that
Louis himself which he thought was impossible.…

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Charles X 1824-1830
Formerly the Comte d'artois Charles X came into power after the death of his brother Louis XVIII . He
inherited Villele as his chief minister, supported by a chamber that held an Ultra attitude, he had high
hopes of carrying out policies he had believed in for…

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Reasons for the 1830 Revolution:

Short-term causes:

-March 1827 the National Guard was got rid of after a review by the King.
-Growing hatred for Villeles unpopular ministry ­ campaign against him in both the
press and from the Chamber of Peers.
-A liberal political society was created in 1827…

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Louis Philippe
-After the revolution the bourgeoisie had provoked, they had to act quickly for it to benefit them.
Thiers who had provided the leadership had the walls of Paris covered with posters in favour of Louis
Philippe who had: Royal claim to the throne and had fought for…

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How Louis Philippe governed France:

Laffitte Led the first ministerial team. He regarded the July revolution as a new beginning and
wanted further reform. Continued rioting and disorder made Louis Philippe decide he needed a more
conservative leader.

Perier replaced Laffitte. Perier was a traditional liberal and saw the revolution…

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War broke out between Mehemet Ali and the Turks, with Britain and Russia supporting the Turkish
while France favoured the Egyptians. Thiers threatened war against major powers if they moved to
subdue Mehemet Ali.

Spanish Marriages 1846 threatened anglo-french relations. Guizot seized the opportunity to
marry the Spanish Queens younger…

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The revolution of July 1830 brought to power Louis-Philippe and established a regime
variously known as the July Monarchy, the Bourgeois Monarchy, or the Orleanist Monarchy.
The wealthy middle class believed they had a monarch they could control though Louis
Philippe was determined not to be a puppet. During this…

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Louis Napoleon was helped by the assembly who were swaying to royalist sympathies and in 1850
disenfranchised almost three million of France's poorest voters. He restored universal male
suffrage in time for the plebiscite on December 20, in which he asks for dictatorial powers as
president for a span of…


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