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Cognitive
Short Term Memory
Description Key Study
Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Duration Between eight and thirty seconds
Trigram experiment
Miller (1956)
Capacity Seven items (± two items)
Magic number seven digit span task
Baddeley (1966)
Encoding Mainly acoustic (sound based)
Immediate recall study

Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Procedure:
o A…

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o The procedure was repeated four times
Findings:
o The results showed that it was much harder to recall acoustically similar words than
dissimilar words and that the meaning of words had less significant difference to recalling
Conclusions:
o Encoding in STM is acoustic (sound based)
o Encoding in LTM…

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Long Term Memory
Description Key Study
Bahrick et al. (1975)
Duration Thirty seconds up to a life time
High school photograph study
Solomon Shereshevsky (Case study)
Capacity Unlimited
Famous mnemonist
Baddeley (1966)
Encoding Mainly semantic (meaning based)
Delayed recall study

Bahrick et al. (1975)
Procedure:
o 392 people were asked…

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The Multi-store Model of Memory




The multi-store model of memory places emphasis on separate and sequential processes
Attention, coding and rehearsal are important processes
At each store, information may be lost through decay

Evidence for the Multi-store Model
1. Sperling (1960) ­ duration of the sensory store
Participants saw a…

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long-term memories, despite being able to remember things from before the surgery
This suggested that the hippocampus may function as a memory gateway through which
new memories must pass before entering permanent storage


Evaluation of the Multi-store Model
Strengths Weaknesses
Short term memory may not be a single store. Evidence…

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The Working Memory Model

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Evidence for the Working Memory Model
1. Baddeley and Hitch (1976) ­ Different Components
They gave participants two tasks to do simultaneously
Task one occupied the central executive (participants were given a statement `B is followed
by A' and shown two letters such as `AB' and asked to say whether…

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This means it's harder to remember long words than short words as they can't fit onto the
loop
But, the word length effect disappears if a person is given an articulatory suppression task,
such as saying `the the the' whilst reading the words
This repetitive task ties up the articulatory…

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Eyewitness Testimony
Eyewitness testimony is defined as the use of eyewitnesses to give evidence in court concerning the identity
of someone who has committed a crime.

There are three different stages:




Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Experiment One ­ Misleading Questions

Aim:
o To investigate the accuracy of memory after witnessing…

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Experiment Two ­ Post-Event Information

Aim:
o To investigate whether memory is altered by post-event information which is incorrect in
relation to the scene witnessed
Method:
o Participants were allocated to three groups and asked to watch a traffic accident
o Group one were given the word "smashed"; group two…

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