Memory Revision Notes

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Memory Revision

Memory Processes:

  • Encoding- placing information into the memory store. Must pay ATTENTION for info to be encoded
  • Storage- info must be kept in memory. Memory for skills eg. riding a bike (procedural), facts( semantic) or memories (episodic). Semantic and episodic together is called DECLARATIVE memory. Remembering how info is acquired- EXPLICIT. Not remembering how info is acquired- IMPLICIT.
  • Retrieval- ability to recall info when it is needed.

Short term memory:

  • limited capacity and duration
  • Miller's magic number 7
  • Chunking allows info to be combined and increases the capacity of STM

Capacity of STM- Baddeley et al.

  • to see if people could remember more short than long words in a serial recall test.
  • Pps reading speed was measured
  • pps presented with 5 words on a screen. Words were taken from 1 of 2 sets; either a set of one syllable words or a set of polysyllabic words.
  • pps asked to write down the 5 words in serial oder immediately after presentation
  • pps could recall considerably more short words that long
  • able to recall as many words as they could say in about 2 seconds
  • strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory span ie immediate memory span represents no. of items that can be said in about 2 seconds
  • short words MAY be easier to recall as more familiar
  • lack of realism (lab experiment, lists of unconnected words)

Duration of STM- Peterson and Peterson

  • test how long STM lasts when rehearsal is prevented
  • pps briefly shown a consonant trigram, then asked to count backwards in 3's from specified number to stop rehearsal
  • after intervals of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 seconds, asked to recall original trigram
  • procedure repeated several times with different trigrams
  • pps able to recall about 80% of trigrams after 3 seconds
  • less trigrams remembered as time intervals increased ie STM only able to hold a few items at once and for a brief period of time. Anything needed to be remembered for longer must be transferred to LTM
  • preventing rehearsal by interference task, recall poorer

Encoding in STM- Baddeley

  • To explore effects of acoustic and semantic encoding in STM
  • pps divided into 4 groups. each group heard list of 5 words drawn from one of these categories; acoustically similar/dissimilar words, semantically similar/dissimilar words
  • immediately after hearing words, asked to recall them in correct order. Procedure carried out 4 times
  • Acoustically similar words harder to recall in correct order (5%) than disimilar (75%)
  • causal link can be drawn
  • STM may use other forms of encoding

Duration of LTM- Bahrick et al

  • to estabilish the existence of VLTM and see if there was difference between recognition and recall
  • Investigators tracked down graduates from American high school over 50 year period.
  • 392 graduates shown photographs from high school yearbook
  • recognition group- pps given group of names, recall group- simply asked to name the people
  • in recognition: 90% correct after 14 years of graduation, 60% after 47 years, in recall group; 60% after 7 years, 20% after 47 years
  • study



Very comprehensive and colourful notes!




excellent notes, but you forgot to include explanations of forgetting.


fab notes tnxs

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