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Research Methods
Aims and hypotheses
o Aims: what we are interested in finding out.
o Hypothesis: Predictable/testable statement
Experimental/alternative Hypothesis: there will be a significant relationship,
one variable will affect another or there will be a significant difference
between two sets of data.
Null Hypothesis: the backup hypothesis; no significant…

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Experimental Design

Advantages Disadvantages Remedy

Repeated measures Individual differences between The range of potential Order effects can be
design; each participant participants are removed as a uses is smaller than for the controlled by
will take part in both potential cofounding variable. independent groups counterbalancing or
conditions. Also, fewer participants…

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o This is a variable other than the IV, which may account for the change in the DV.
Demand characteristics
o In research, and particularly psychology, demand characteristics refers to an
experimental artefact where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's
purpose and unconsciously change their behaviour accordingly.
Qualitative and…

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Interviews
Questionnaires




Measures of central tendency

Advantages Disadvantages

Mode ­ most frequently Represents a figure that is Doesn't tell us about other
occurring value present in set of data. figures.
Unaffected by extreme Might be bi-modal or
scores. multimodal ­ becomes
Useful if other measures less useful.
of central tendency…

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Advantages: the top and bottom 25% are ignored which gets over the
problem of outlying values.

Standard Measures the average distance of each score away from the mean.
deviation This is done using formulae.
Advantage: most powerful measure of dispersion.
Disadvantage: less effective when there are outlying scores that skew…

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Those who think the research
is acceptable will be selected.

Failure to protect from Risk of harm should be no Anticipating harm and
harm greater than that in ordinary stopping the study:
life. Some psychologists excuse
distress because it was
unexpected. But stop the
study.
Using role play:
People are…

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Memory
STM and LTM ­ duration, capacity and encoding ­ multi store model.
o 3 main points
o Explain 2 points of support/two strengths and two points of criticism/two
weaknesses for the model.
Multi store Model
o Atkinson and Schifrin;
o Information initially received by the sensory store for a…

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Phonological Loop ­ inner ear and inner voice; deals with spoken and
written material: used to remember phone numbers. Allows
acoustically encoded items to be stored for a brief period. The
articulatory suppression technique prevents repetition by saying
irrelevant words to the task to prevent the phonological loop from
retaining…

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o Lab experiment ­ lacks ecological validity perhaps. Ethics ­
caused participants distress.




Yuille and Cutshall - Interviewed 13 witnesses of a real life gun crime, some
witnesses were closer to the event than others. Witnesses were
impressively accurate after several months. Those closest to the event
provided the most…

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o Limitations

Bartlett's reconstructive memory theory ­ schema



Cognitive Interview.
o What is involved
Recreate the context of the original incident ­ weather, smells, feeling at the
time.
To report every detail ­ even if it does not have a bearing on the crime.
To recall event in different orders…

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