Memory Revision Pack

Easy tp print out: A01 and A02 of models (Description and Evaluation)


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  • Created on: 15-03-13 14:23
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Unit 1
Cognitive Psychology ­ Memory
Multistore model ­ Atkinson & Shiffrin
Draw it
Describe points about it (e.g. short term memory including capacity,
duration & encoding)
Sufferer's of Korsakoff's syndrome have fully functioning LTM but impaired
STM. Supports that they are separate stores.
Peterson & Peterson found that if you prevent rehearsal of material it is lost
from STM. So rehearsal needed to transfer info. to LTM.
Brain damage patient K.F had impaired STM but intact LTM. Shows that
stores are separate.
It allows for reasonable explanations of forgetting.
Brain wave pattern activity looks different for people giving immediate
recall (STM) to those giving delayed recall (LTM).
Does not account for the different types of longterm memory (e.g.
differences between episodic and semantic memory).
Does not account for differences in longterm memory between implicit &
explicit memory.
Implicit = Remembering things which you may have learnt naturally, e.g.
asked to remember the names of ex school mates.
Explicit = Remembering things which you have been asked to learn/rehearse,
e.g. asked to learn & recall a list of info.
People do not engage in active rehearsal much in everyday life ­ lacks
mundane realism / ecological validity.
There have only been a small sample of brain damage patients tested ­
they may not be representative of the general population.
Multistore model is oversimplified ­ there may also be many types of
shortterm store.

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Encoding ­ Baddeley
Aim: To compare how information is encoded in short & long term memory
Procedure: Presented participants with 4 sets of words to recall:
Set A ­ Acoustically similar words (e.g. cab, mad).
Set B ­ Acoustically dissimilar words (e.g. pit, few).
Set C ­ Semantically similar words (e.g. large, huge).
Set D ­ Semantically dissimilar words (e.g. good, huge).
Split participants into 2 groups ­ immediate recall (shortterm memory) & recall
after interval (longterm memory).…read more

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Duration of STM Peterson and Peterson
Aim: To test the duration of information in short term memory
Procedure: Used `BrownPeterson Technique'. They presented participants
with trigram of 3 consonants (e.g. VMN, HTY). Recall was required after delays
of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds. Participants counted backwards in threes from
a random 3 digit number (e.g. 866) between presentation & recall to prevent
Rapid increase in forgetting from STM as time delay increased.…read more

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Conclusion: VLTM seems to exist ­ especially when recognition cues are
given. Recognition is better than free recall.
Only tells us about remembering people ­ this may have emotional
significance explaining the results.
May have culture bias ­ only carried out on Americans.
Unclear whether reduced accuracy in recall after 48 years was due to duration
limits or age affecting the memory store.
Bahrick's research has high ecological validity as it relates to real life. So can
be generalised ­ has mundane realism.…read more

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Conclusion: Leading questions can influence our memory of events and can
lead to some inaccuracies in memory.…read more

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Conclusion: This provides evidence for the reconstructive nature of memory,
cultural schemas will have an influence on the way in which memory is
Culturally bias as only done on English participants ­ reduces external validity.
individual differences cannot be controlled e.g. familiarity of the story ­
decreases the internal validity.
Bartlett's research has important implications in criminal investigations ­
proves that we cannot always rely on eyewitness testimony.
It cannot be assumed that the distortions in recall were due to memory
problems.…read more

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A study by Yuille & Cutshall (1986) assessed the level of arousal and accuracy
of testimonies from 13 witnesses to robberies or murders.
The general finding was that the witnesses reporting higher levels of arousal
recalled fewer facts correctly than the p's with lower levels.…read more

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Certainly studies on recall of words and fairly straightforward memory tests lend
support to this belief.
AO1 ­ Brimacombe et al
Showed elderly and younger adults a video of a crime. The older adults less
accurate than younger.
The recording of their testimonies were viewed by other Ps, they were rated
as less credible.
The testimonies were transcribed and judged by Ps who were give false
information about the age of the witness.....The doubts remained even when the
Ps did not know their age...…read more

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Fishers extra features ­ enhanced cognitive interview
should minimise distractions
actively listen to the witness
open ended questions
pause after each response
avoid interruption
encourage the use of imagery
adapt their language to suit the witness
avoid any judgemental comments
Evidence for cognitive interview
Geiselman et al ­ showed them videos of simulated crime then tested in
different groups, they got more information from the ones participants who
underwent the cognitive interview technique.…read more



this is amazing!! thank you so much!

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