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Unit 1

Cognitive Psychology ­ Memory

Multistore model ­ Atkinson & Shiffrin


Draw it
Describe points about it (e.g. short term memory including capacity,
duration & encoding)
Sufferer's of Korsakoff's syndrome have fully functioning LTM but impaired
STM. Supports that they are separate stores.
Peterson & Peterson found…

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Working memory model ­ Baddeley and Hitch


Draw it
Describe the individual parts
Model does not class STM as a prerequisite of LTM. Accounts for way that
some amnesiacs lay down permanent memories even when they have damaged
The model accounts for different types of short term…

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Encoding ­ Baddeley

Aim: To compare how information is encoded in short & long term memory
Procedure: Presented participants with 4 sets of words to recall:
Set A ­ Acoustically similar words (e.g. cab, mad).
Set B ­ Acoustically dissimilar words (e.g. pit, few).
Set C ­ Semantically similar…

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Duration of STM Peterson and Peterson

Aim: To test the duration of information in short term memory
Procedure: Used `BrownPeterson Technique'. They presented participants
with trigram of 3 consonants (e.g. VMN, HTY). Recall was required after delays
of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds. Participants counted backwards…

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34 90% 90% 60%

48 40% 80% 30%
Conclusion: VLTM seems to exist ­ especially when recognition cues are
given. Recognition is better than free recall.

Only tells us about remembering people ­ this may have emotional
significance explaining the results.
May have culture bias ­ only carried out…

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Conclusion: Leading questions can influence our memory of events and can
lead to some inaccuracies in memory.

Could be culturally bias
Control over variable (lab experiment)
Easy to replicate
Lacks mundane realism ­ not natural setting
Supported by other researchers ­ Loftus & Zanni (broken headlamp)
People may not…

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Conclusion: This provides evidence for the reconstructive nature of memory,
cultural schemas will have an influence on the way in which memory is

Culturally bias as only done on English participants ­ reduces external validity.
individual differences cannot be controlled e.g. familiarity of the story ­
decreases the…

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A study by Yuille & Cutshall (1986) assessed the level of arousal and accuracy
of testimonies from 13 witnesses to robberies or murders.
The general finding was that the witnesses reporting higher levels of arousal
recalled fewer facts correctly than the p's with lower levels.

Hosch & Cooper ­…

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Certainly studies on recall of words and fairly straightforward memory tests lend
support to this belief.

AO1 ­ Brimacombe et al
Showed elderly and younger adults a video of a crime. The older adults less
accurate than younger.
The recording of their testimonies were viewed by other Ps, they were…

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Fishers extra features ­ enhanced cognitive interview
should minimise distractions
actively listen to the witness
open ended questions
pause after each response
avoid interruption
encourage the use of imagery
adapt their language to suit the witness
avoid any judgemental comments

Evidence for cognitive interview
Geiselman et al ­ showed them…




this is amazing!! thank you so much!

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