Memory Revision Notes.

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Multi-Store Model. Supporting Evidence.
A structural model that suggests there are + Glanzer and Cunitz = asked participants to remember as many
three separate memory stores. objects as they could from a sequence of pictures that they
Sensory store, short term store and long term were shown. With their results they produced a graph called
store. the serial position curve. The graph showed a curve that
Information enters these stores via our senses dipped in the middle and peaked at the beginning and end.
and passes through each of them in a linear These two points were labelled primacy and regency effect.
way, (information cannot skip a stage). Primacy was where the objects first shown were remembered
In order for information to be transferred it as they had passed into the long term memory whereas
must be encoded. (Information must be regency was where the objects last shown were remembered
changed into a different form that is easy to so were in the short term memory. This helps to increase the
remember). validity of the model.
Sensory -> short = encoded acoustically. + The model helps to explain certain types of memory illness
Short -> long = encoded semantically. such as amnesia, both retrograde and anterograde. The
Each store has its own capacity and duration. model suggests that in sufferers one store may be damaged
Short term: capacity = 7+/-2 and duration = while the other remains intact. Therefore, the model has real
18-10 seconds. world applications.
Long term: capacity = potentially limitless and + The model has validity as it had supporting evidence from
duration = a life time. brain damaged patients such as the case study of HM. HM
had severe epilepsy so his hippocampus was removed. His
personality and intellect remained but he could no longer
form new long term memories however he could remember
old ones before the surgery. This suggests that the
hippocampus acts as a gateway for new memories.
Challenging Evidence.
- The model emphasises the importance of rehearsing
information. This is because it ignores the importance of
processing as Craik and Lockhart suggested that enduring
memories are created by processing rather than rehearsal.
Things are therefore more memorable because of the way
that they are processed. This is bad because the model is only
a simplistic explanation.
- Can be criticised for seeing the short term and long term as
unitary stores. There is evidence to suggest otherwise. For
instance, the case study of KF who suffered brain damage
which resulted in difficulty when dealing with verbal
information but a normal ability to process visual information
both in the short term.
Bahrick ­ Duration of Long Term Memory.
A lab experiment to see whether memories
could last several decades.
Participants aged 17-24.
They had to recall as many names as they could
of their former class mates through a) name
test, b) photo test, c) name and photo test, c)
free recall.
Findings = cued recall up to 34 years; 90% and
after 48 years; 80%. Free recall after 15 years;
50% and after 48 years; 30%.
Peterson and Peterson ­ Duration of Short Term
Lab experiment where participants were shown
a consonant trigram eg. CPW.

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Participants were asked to count backwards to
prevent maintenance rehearsal.
After intervals of 3 seconds they were asked to
recall the trigrams.
Findings = after 3 secs; 80-90% recalled, after 6
secs; 50% recalled and after 18 secs; >10%
Miller ­ Capacity of Short Term Memory.
A meta-analysis.
Miller concluded that the capacity of short term
memory was 7+/-2.
This was true of musical notes, digits and
Baddeley ­ Encoding in the Short and Long Term
Memory.…read more

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SC = had generally good learning abilities but
couldn't learn word pairs presented out loud. This
suggests damage to the phonological loop.
o LH = after being involved in a road accident he
performed better on spatial tasks than visual
imagery ones. This suggests separate visual and
spatial systems.
+ The model can be praised for being able to be applied to real
life roles.…read more

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Controlled condition ­ 12%
reported seeing broken glass.
Participants had reconstructed their memories
based on their expectations rather than the
factual truth.
Therefore, misleading post-event information
can change an individual's accuracy of recall.
Loftus and Palmer­ Effects of Leading Questions on + Ease of replication ­ the experiment was conducted in a lab
EWT. where there is control over extraneous variables and the
To investigate the effects of leading questions procedure was straightforward that included a standardised
on the estimation of speed.…read more

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The anxiety caused by the sight of the weapon participants need to be debriefed and offered counselling if
narrowed the individuals' focus and resulted in necessary.
less accurate recall when identifying the correct
Loftus and Burns­ Effects of Anxiety on EWT. + Control over extraneous variables ­ the study took place in a
Participants were allocated to 1/2 conditions: lab where tight controls can be made so only the independent
1.…read more

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King and Yuille ­ Effects of Age on EWT. + Control over extraneous variables - the study took place in a
Carried out a lab experiment by asking lab where tight controls can be made so only the independent
participants to watch a video in which they saw variable is isolated in order to see its effect on the dependent
a crime take place. variable. Therefore with this control cause and effect can be
Findings = children though irrelevant established.
information (eg.…read more

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It is aimed at encouraging accurate and - The CI takes longer to complete than the traditional interview
thorough recall of specific events. technique. Kebbell and Wagstaff found many police officers
There are four key components: did not use the CI technique in less serious crimes as they did
1. Context reinstatement ­ the not have the time.…read more

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In Brazil the current model of police + Important implications ­ these results suggest that
questioning is interrogation and torture. techniques such as CI may set the way for a new approach to
Women were recruited from the cleaning staff interviewing in Brazil and other developing countries.
of a large university and were asked to watch a - Protection from harm ­ the participants witnessed a
video of an abduction.…read more


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