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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



Psychology Karen Revision Attachment

Definition of Attachment
A close emotional bond between 2 people characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain
closeness.

The Stage Theory (Schaffer and Emerson)
Schaffer and Emerson developed a stage theory of attachment (based on their 2 year study…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



FINDINGS:
Half of the children showed their first specific attachment between 25 and 32 weeks (68 months).
Fear of strangers occurred about a month later in all the children.
The intensity of attachment peaked in the first month after attachment behaviour first appeared, as measured…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



Individual Differences in Attachments
Definitions of Attachment Types
Secure:
A strong and contented attachment of an infant to its caregiver, related to healthy cognitive and emotional
development.
This is the optimal type of attachment. The securely attached individual is able to function independently
because their…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA




EVALUATION:
+ Much research has confirmed the usefulness of the Strange Situation test, and the three types of
attachment identified by Ainsworth et al.
+ Studies that have used the Strange Situation have found that it is reliable (if the same child was tested the…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



from their mothers.
Secure attachment = 62%
Resistant = 33%
Avoidant = 5%
Anxiety was probably due to the stranger entering, rather than being separated from their mother.
Japanese children ­ Showed similar attachments to Israeli children but probably for different reasons. Under
normal circumstances…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



Those who use the Strange Situation assume that behaviour has the same meaning in all cultures, when in
fact social constructions of behaviour differ. For example, in Japan young infants are rarely parted from their
mother, whereas German infants are taught to be independent from…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



Explanations of Attachment
Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
John Bowlby was a child psychoanalyst interested in the relationship between child and their caregiver.
He was influenced by the evolutionary theory & believed that attachment was an innate response, which
evolved and served to promote survival in…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



Freud's Psychosexual Stages
The Oral Stage =
This stage takes place as a child is 0 ­ 1 year old.
At this stage a child is still breastfeeding and being weaned, the focus of point of pleasure is the mouth. As
well getting food, children…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



Deprivation and Privation

Deprivation
Deprivation / separation ­ Occurs when a child has formed an attachment but is then separated.
Shortterm
Shortterm separation occurs usually when infants are in day care or an infant or caregiver has a short stay in
hospital.
Long term
Longterm…

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Psychology Karen Emma Rudd BMA



According to Bowlby, an affectionless psychopath has a lack of emotional development, characterised by lack
of concern for others, lack of guilt, and inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships.
The implications were that this research could be used to inform on issues concerning parenting…

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