psychology memory revision notes

some psychology revision notes i made at the beginning of the year (a bit late i know but hey..) , hope you enjoy them anyway and if you want any more let me know and i'll upload more topics :) goodluck for those sitting psychology exams in the next couple of weeks, best of luck :) xxxxx 

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  • Created by: Janelle
  • Created on: 13-05-12 21:07
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Janelle De La Rosa
Cognitive psychology
Memory is the process by which we retain information about events that have
happened in the past. Whether immediate past (STM) or years ago (LTM)
STM ­ short term memory
Short term memory is your memory for events in the present or immediate past
LTM ­ long term memory
Long term memory is your memory for events that have happened in the more
distant past, (from a minute ago to 100 years ago)
Encoding is when the information in a memory is processed and registered in our
brains. It can be done by the sound of the information, the way the information
looks, or the meaning of the information
the memory then STORES the information somewhere in our memory system
either in ST or LT in our brain
Then we need to be able to RETRIEVE/RECALL that information from the memory
whenever it is needed.

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It is not an exact description of something, something that can REPRESENT
A model is similar to a theory but it tries to explain the psychological process
interactions. (how STM and LTM interact)
Memory STM LTM
Sensory memory is the memory we collect through our senses (eyes, ears, nose,
tongue, skin etc..…read more

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Atkinson & shiffrin believed that the more times information is rehearsed the
better is it remembered
Information in the LTM is encoded by its meaning (i.e. semantically) and so as a
consequence memories in this store can last up to a life time (i.e.…read more

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LTM store
the model is also accused of being too simplistic in that it doesn't take into
account the TYPE of memory being processed ; some things are easier to
remember because they are more interesting, fun etc...
the model claims that information in LTM can only be stored though rehearsal,
even though there are many situations where we remember information without
having to rehearse it. (e.g.…read more

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STM is usually thought of as being a temporary store with any information
that we need to retain for longer being transferred to out LTM
Encoding is the way in which the information is processed in a memory
The main way of encoding in STM is by the way the information SOUNDS.
This information is said to be encoded ACCOUSTICALLY (Conrad study)
Information in the LTM is encoded by its MEANING. It is then said to be
encoded SEMANTICALLY.…read more

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Phonological loop
Visuo-spatial sketchpad
Holds speech/sound based Deals with the
Information information
Braddley & hitch tried to explain STM as being made up of 3 different
stores: central executive, the phonological loop and the visual-spatial
Central executive - has an OVERALL CONTROL and is therefore responsible
for various control processed. (I.e. responsible for setting tasks and
monitoring and co-ordinating information from the two SLAVE SYSTEMS.
Switching attention between tasks, as well as receiving information from
the LTM.…read more

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Positive ­
Model has been very influential amongst psychologists and the term working
memory is quickly replacing the term STM amongst many researchers.
Unlike the MSM this model can explain many aspects of STM, such as the ability
to form two different tasks at the same time (e.g. it has been shown that two
tasks that use DIFFERENT SLAVE SYSTEMS) (e.g. looking at a picture and listening
to music are much easier to do than two tasks that use the same slave system
(e.g.…read more

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The model does not really explain what the central executive is but instead
described it as being similar to ATTENTION. Some psychologists feel that this
explanation is TOO VAGUE and is therefore insufficient. Other psychologists argue
that the idea of a single area of the brain being the central executive is wrong and
that is it probably made up of SEVERAL COMPONENTS.
A second limitation of the working memory model concerns INSTRUMENTAL
MUSIC (i.e. music without words/lyrics).…read more

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Eye witness testimony (EWT)
What is eyewitness testimony?
EWT is the evidence given in court or in police investigations by someone who has
witnessed a crime. According to Research it is said that the accuracy of EWT is affected by
various factors (i.e.…read more

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Participants were given 50 photos and asked to identify the man with the knife or
with the pen depending the condition
Findings showed that participants were more accurate with choosing the `pen
man' rather than the `knife man'
Therefore, loftus came to the conclusion and believed that the participants' anxiety
at seeing the man with the knife narrowed their attention on the weapon, rather
than focusing on the man's face, making their EWT less accurate
Christianson & hubinette (1993)
Bank robberies
Carried out a survey…read more


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