psychology memory revision notes

some psychology revision notes i made at the beginning of the year (a bit late i know but hey..) , hope you enjoy them anyway and if you want any more let me know and i'll upload more topics :) goodluck for those sitting psychology exams in the next couple of weeks, best of luck :) xxxxx 

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  • Created on: 13-05-12 21:07
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Janelle De La Rosa

Cognitive psychology

MEMORY

Memory is the process by which we retain information about events that have
happened in the past. Whether immediate past (STM) or years ago (LTM)

STM ­ short term memory

Short term memory is your memory for events in the present or immediate…

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WHAT IS A MODEL

It is not an exact description of something, something that can REPRESENT
something



A model is similar to a theory but it tries to explain the psychological process
interactions. (how STM and LTM interact)




Sensory
Memory STM LTM
Store




Sensory memory is the memory we collect…

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Atkinson & shiffrin believed that the more times information is rehearsed the
better is it remembered

Information in the LTM is encoded by its meaning (i.e. semantically) and so as a
consequence memories in this store can last up to a life time (i.e. unlimited
duration)

LTM has unlimited capacity…

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the model doesn't show any differentiation in the LTM store

the model is also accused of being too simplistic in that it doesn't take into
account the TYPE of memory being processed ; some things are easier to
remember because they are more interesting, fun etc...

the model claims that…

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STM is usually thought of as being a temporary store with any information
that we need to retain for longer being transferred to out LTM

Encoding is the way in which the information is processed in a memory
store

The main way of encoding in STM is by the way…

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two slave systems




Phonological loop
Visuo-spatial sketchpad

Holds speech/sound based Deals with the
visuo-spatial
Information information




Braddley & hitch tried to explain STM as being made up of 3 different
stores: central executive, the phonological loop and the visual-spatial
sketchpad.

Central executive - has an OVERALL CONTROL and is therefore…

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Positive ­

Model has been very influential amongst psychologists and the term working
memory is quickly replacing the term STM amongst many researchers.

Unlike the MSM this model can explain many aspects of STM, such as the ability
to form two different tasks at the same time (e.g. it has…

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The model does not really explain what the central executive is but instead
described it as being similar to ATTENTION. Some psychologists feel that this
explanation is TOO VAGUE and is therefore insufficient. Other psychologists argue
that the idea of a single area of the brain being the central executive…

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SECTION 2: MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Eye witness testimony (EWT)

What is eyewitness testimony?

EWT is the evidence given in court or in police investigations by someone who has
witnessed a crime. According to Research it is said that the accuracy of EWT is affected by
various factors (i.e. misleading…

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Participants were given 50 photos and asked to identify the man with the knife or
with the pen depending the condition
Findings showed that participants were more accurate with choosing the `pen
man' rather than the `knife man'
Therefore, loftus came to the conclusion and believed that the participants' anxiety…

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