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PSYCHOLOGY REVISION NOTES- MEMORY
1. What are the three processes of memory?
Encoding- Placing information into the memory store.
Storage
Retrieval- The ability to recall information when needed.


2. What are the functions of the STM?
To keep information available because it is currently needed.
To pass info to LTM…

Page 2

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After 3 seconds accurate recall was 80%.
This deteriorated as time increased.
can conclude that duration is very short and maintenance rehearsal is necessary
to prevent decay

EVAL
Consonant trigrams are artificial so lack of eco validity.
Lab expt. high levels of control, cause and effect can be established.
Interference…

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RECOGNITION: After 14 yrs 90% accuracy
After 25 yrs 80% accuracy
After 34 yrs 75% accuracy
After 47 yrs 60% accuracy
RECALL : After 7 yrs 60% accuracy
After 47 yrs <20% accuracy
Very LTM seems best when measured using recognition tests and it seems
that some types of info…

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The Working Memory Model proposed by Baddeley & Hitch.




12. Outline the Multi-Store Model.
Linear structure made up of three components. Sensory memory, STM, LTM.
Incoming stimuli first registered in Sensory Memory before decaying. If given
conscious attention it will pass on to the STM.
STM stores acoustic (and visual)…

Page 5

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14. Evaluation and Comparison of the models of memory.
Multi-Store Model carefully establishes the difference between the STM and the
LTM in terms of duration and encoding BUT it is too simplistic and inflexible WHEREAS
the Working Memory model is an integrated, flexible multi component system.
Multi-Store Model is supported…

Page 6

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While memorising positions the PPs had to either engage the central
executive by generating random letter sequences, or perform articulatory
suppression tasks.

FINDINGS & EVAL
PPs performed well while performing the articulatory suppression task but
not when engaging the central executive.
memorising the positions involved engaging the central executive. We…

Page 7

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Either a low key discussion in a lab before a person leaves with a pen and
grease on his hands.
A heated exchange before a person leaves with a bloody paper knife
PPs were then given 50 photos and asked to pick the person who had left
the room.

FINDINGS…

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PROC
PPs were taken into a room designed to fit an office schemas and asked to
wait for 35s.
In the room contained 61 objects, some fit the office schema while others
didn't.
Then given an unexpected recall test.

FINDINGS & CONC
PPs were successful in recalling items with high…

Page 9

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Supported by other studies. Results were the same even with money
incentives.
There is a significant statistical difference but not all were misled.
Shown static slides, this is not meaningful stimulus and lacks ecological
validity.
Different results were found in a study Loftus for information that was
blatantly incorrect.


Research…

Page 10

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Use of mnemonics- loci/peg words/acronyms
Spacing studies

25. Outline research into the encoding specificity principle.
GODDEN & BADDELEY (C.S.)

PROC
PPs were deep sea divers asked to learn a list of 40 words and then recall
them.
Experiment took place at the side of a swimming pool and 10 ft.…

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