Memory revision question and answers

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1. What are the three processes of memory?
Encoding- Placing information into the memory store.
Retrieval- The ability to recall information when needed.
2. What are the functions of the STM?
To keep information available because it is currently needed.
To pass info to LTM for storage to use it for later.
To retrieve information that is needed now from LTM.
3. What are the three types of memory?
Sensory, STM, LTM
4. What is the capacity/duration/encoding of the STM?
Capacity: 7+/-2 (Miller) OR anything that can be articulated in 2 seconds (Baddeley)
Duration: <20 seconds
Encoding: Acoustic
5. Outline research into the capacity of the STM.
BADDELEY (Case Study)
Reading speed of participants was measured.
Then provided with a list of 5 words. Either monosyllabic or polysyllabic words.
Asked to write down words immediately in serial order.
PPs could recall more short words than long words.
Strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory span.
Perhaps shorter words are more familiar to us so more easily recalled. HOWEVER
Baddeley produced a later version of the study showing the importance of
pronunciation time and familiarity.
Lab expt. high levels of control and so cause and effect can be established.
Lack of eco validity
6. Outline research in to the duration of the STM.
PPs given a consonant trigram.
After a period of 3 up to 18 seconds asked to recall.
During the interval time asked to count back in threes from a given number
(to prevent rehearsal).

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After 3 seconds accurate recall was 80%.
This deteriorated as time increased.
can conclude that duration is very short and maintenance rehearsal is necessary
to prevent decay
Consonant trigrams are artificial so lack of eco validity.
Lab expt. high levels of control, cause and effect can be established.
Interference from earlier trigrams could have caused poor recall (proactive
7. Outline research into the duration of STM.
PPs split into 4 groups.…read more

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RECOGNITION: After 14 yrs 90% accuracy
After 25 yrs 80% accuracy
After 34 yrs 75% accuracy
After 47 yrs 60% accuracy
RECALL : After 7 yrs 60% accuracy
After 47 yrs <20% accuracy
Very LTM seems best when measured using recognition tests and it seems
that some types of info can last a life time.
Unclear whether the drop in accuracy after 47 yrs reflects the limits of
duration or is due to a more general decline of memory with age.…read more

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The Working Memory Model proposed by Baddeley & Hitch.
12. Outline the Multi-Store Model.
Linear structure made up of three components. Sensory memory, STM, LTM.
Incoming stimuli first registered in Sensory Memory before decaying. If given
conscious attention it will pass on to the STM.
STM stores acoustic (and visual) stimuli for several seconds.
Info in the STM is fragile and will decay if maintenance rehearsal is prevented.…read more

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Evaluation and Comparison of the models of memory.
Multi-Store Model carefully establishes the difference between the STM and the
LTM in terms of duration and encoding BUT it is too simplistic and inflexible WHEREAS
the Working Memory model is an integrated, flexible multi component system.
Multi-Store Model is supported by case studies of memory impairment after brain
damage and research into primacy and recency effects (Glanzer & Cunitz).
Multi-Store Model focuses on structure rather than adequately explaining the
process involved in memory.…read more

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While memorising positions the PPs had to either engage the central
executive by generating random letter sequences, or perform articulatory
suppression tasks.
PPs performed well while performing the articulatory suppression task but
not when engaging the central executive.
memorising the positions involved engaging the central executive. We are able
to perform different tasks simultaneously if they engage different components.…read more

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Either a low key discussion in a lab before a person leaves with a pen and
grease on his hands.
A heated exchange before a person leaves with a bloody paper knife
PPs were then given 50 photos and asked to pick the person who had left
the room.…read more

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PPs were taken into a room designed to fit an office schemas and asked to
wait for 35s.
In the room contained 61 objects, some fit the office schema while others
Then given an unexpected recall test.
PPs were successful in recalling items with high schema expectancy but not
with incompatible items.
8 PPs recalled the really bizarre item (skull)
Most error was made in substitution of items with high schema expectancy.
Or wrong placement of items (e.g.…read more

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Supported by other studies. Results were the same even with money
There is a significant statistical difference but not all were misled.
Shown static slides, this is not meaningful stimulus and lacks ecological
Different results were found in a study Loftus for information that was
blatantly incorrect.
Research into effects of misleading info that is blatantly incorrect- LOFTUS
PPs were shown slides showing the theft of a large red purse.
Then asked to read an account of the events.…read more

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Use of mnemonics- loci/peg words/acronyms
Spacing studies
25. Outline research into the encoding specificity principle.
PPs were deep sea divers asked to learn a list of 40 words and then recall
Experiment took place at the side of a swimming pool and 10 ft. underwater.
4 groups
-Control 1 Learnt on land Recall on land
-Control 2 Learnt underwater Recall underwater
-Expt. 1 Learnt on land Recall underwater
-Expt. 2 Learnt underwater Recall on land
FINDINS & CONC.…read more


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