Revision document, outlining:

  • Energy balance
  • Health risks
  • Nutritional advice
  • Statistis (UK and NI)
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  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 02-05-13 20:42

First 394 words of the document:

Approximately 1.2billion people in the world are overweight and at
least 300million of them are obese. According to the World Health
Organization, obesity is one of the 10 most preventable health risks
Obesity is more than just a few extra pounds; it is when a person reaches a
weight 20% over what they should be.
What is obesity?
Obesity is a condition of the body characterized by the over accumulation (cells continue
to fill with fat) of fat under the skin and around certain body organs. This rapidly
increases the risk of diseases that can damage your health (heart disease, diabetes etc.)
The fat may be equally distributed around the body or concentrated on the stomach
(apple shape= more likely to develop CVD) or the hips and thighs (pear shaped)
BMI= Body Mass Index
BMI is used to determine if your weight is in the healthy range. However BMI is not
completely accurate as it doesn't account for muscle mass
BMI between 25and30= overweight
BMI 30= obese
BMI 40= morbidly obese
If current trends continue, 1/3 of all adults will be obese by 2020
How does obesity occur?
-Obesity results when the size and number of fat cells in a person's body increases.
-When a fat cell grows to about three times its normal size, it can divide and make new
fat cells- this is when fat becomes visible.
-When a person loses weight, the fat cells reduce in size, not in number.
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Northern Ireland
In N.I over half a million adults are overweight and are further
250,000 are obese
If this trend continues it is predicted that by 2010, 23% of women
and 22% of men will be obese
1/3 of boys and a ¼ of girls aged 12 are carrying excess weight.
1 in 5 boys and 1 in 4 girls at primary one level in the province are
overweight or obese (could continue into adulthood if diet and
lifestyle factors are not changed)
Research shows that obesity can impact on a child's life on many levels and casts a
shadow over future health. Obesity leads to:
Low self-esteem/emotional health
Being bullied
Mobility issues/joint health

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Why is obesity prevalent in the UK?
1. Increased consumption of highly processed foods (high in fat, high in sugar, high
energy density, high GI and low satiety value)
2. Increased grazing on foods high in fat and sugar (particularly in adolescents and is
linked to working mothers- snack when home from school)
3. Increased consumption of fizzy drinks (especially in children) Fizzy drinks are high in
sugar and are energy dense
4.…read more

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Activity levels for teenage girls are particularly low with 64% of 15 year old girls being
classified as `inactive'
Health risks of obesity
Cardiovascular disease: this includes CHD, stroke and hypertension.
Blood cholesterol and blood pressure with increasing BMI.
Joint problems e.g. osteoarthritis of the knee
Metabolic problems e.g. type 2 diabetes (may develop slowly as the body
develops insulin resistance or reduced sensitivity)
Cancer e.g. in women increases risk of cancer of the ovary, cervix, breast and
endometrium.…read more

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The same amount of energy in and energy out = weight says the same
More in than out= weight gain (positive energy balance)
More out than in= weight loss (Negative energy balance)
Factors contributing to positive energy balance:
1. What individuals eat: high fat energy dense, high sugary foods
2. Eating patterns: snacking and convenience foods
3. Energy output: low levels of activity (sedentary lifestyles)
4. Psychological factors: depression and emotional distress can cause overeating
5.…read more

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Excess energy intake;
Energy can be consumed through protein, carbohydrates and fat. Excess calories are
converted and stored as triglycerides, in the adipose tissue. If excess calories are
consumed over a period of time, without an increase in energy expenditure, the
excess body fat may lead to obesity.
Eating a lot of `energy dense' foods (high in saturated fat and
NMES) is a risk factor for obesity. Convenience foods are high in
refined sugar and saturated fat and therefore have a high energy
density.…read more

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Researchers believe that some obese people have a faulty ob gene. Such people do
not make enough leptin and as a result they don't get a sense of feeling hungry or
full (satiety). This makes it harder to control the amount of food they eat making
them more likely to develop obesity.
However this problem is rare. Most people with obesity have a normal ob gene
(Friedman 2000). The rapid population changes in obesity levels since the 1980's
cannot be due to genetic factors.
3.…read more

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Most likely, genetic and environmental factors (including learned eating habits,
participating in physical activity together with the consumption of healthy foods)
combine to bring about this increased risk (can account for approx.…read more

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Increase amount of fruit and vegetables (less energy dense, high in fibre and
contain natural sugars)
Increase consumption of starchy foods (potatoes, cereals) to increase satiety
levels.…read more


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