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Minerals

Minerals are present in food, mostly in the form of inorganic salts but some are present
in organic compounds.
Minerals such as Calcium and phosphorous are present in the body in large amounts;
known as major elements or macro nutrients, whereas others occur in very small
quantities and are…

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foods. However high levels of calcium and vitamin D is thought to offer some
protection.

Excess: In susceptible people it can result in kidney stones

Factors which assist calcium absorption:
Only 1/3 of calcium eaten is absorbed and used by the body, the rest passes
through the alimentary canal and…

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Phosphorus
Phosphorus is a non-metallic chemical element which exists in different forms. The most
common form is a yellow, poisonous waxy substance, which burns slowly at room
temperature and no animal or plant can exist without it.

Sources:
Easily obtained from foods as it is available form many types:
Milk…

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may combine with the fat present in foods, and this may lead to osteoporosis. This is
because the calcium and phosphorus cannot combine to make calcium phosphate.

Interaction with Calcium
85% of phosphorus in the body combines with calcium to form calcium phosphate, the
source of strength in bones and…

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Symptoms of deficiency are initially hard to recognise. Later shortages lead to:
Muscle weakness
Poor nerve-muscle interaction
Rapid heartbeat
Fatigue
Heart attack (extreme cases)
May lead to bed wetting in children

Deficiency can also occur in alcoholics or people whose magnesium absorption is
increased due to:
-Surgery ­burns ­problems with…

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Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
Preserving or restoring normal functions of cells
Facilitates the body's ability to deal with excess sodium

Requirements:
Decrease in sodium intake and an increase in foods high in potassium

Deficiency:
Not usually a problem in U.K but can occur if potassium is not absorbed or…

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70% of salt in the diet comes from foods (manufactured) 30% added during
cooking and at the table

It's the sodium content that is bad for health. Salt = sodium x 2.5

Functions:
Essential constraints of body fluids (maintain fluid balance and also required to
control movement of fluid between…

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Functions:
Protection against dental deformities
Important in strengthening teeth against decay (thought to combine protective
enamel coating teeth, making resistant to attack from acid)
Accelerates the remineralisation process when teeth have started to demineralize
in the presence of low oral PH
Forms calcium flurapatite (this increase bone mineral and decreases…

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Thyroid hormones are needed to help metabolic processes as they contribute to
the control of body weight, cellular metabolism and the integrity of connective
tissue
During first three months of gestation (baby development) iodine is required for
the development of the nervous system

Requirements:
RNI for teenagers and adults -…

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Excess:
Selenium is thought to interfere with sulphur compounds and even replace sulphur in the
body, as these two minerals are very similar bio chemically and thus may decrease a
number of enzyme actions
Long term ingestion of high amounts of selenium may cause problems with tooth enamel
and strength…

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