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Nutrition across the lifecycle

Pregnancy

Nutrition for pregnancy:

During pregnancy a women's nutritional needs increase because the diet must provide
sufficient energy and nutrients:

To meet mothers needs and provide extra growth of the breasts, uterus and
placenta

To meet needs of growing foetus

For mother to lay down stores…

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the liver. This protein can then be made available from the mother's tissue in the later
stages of pregnancy, when the foetus enters a rapid growth phase.

Folic Acid/Folate: requirements increase during pregnancy. Folate needed for rapid cell
division which is important in first 12 weeks of pregnancy, when spinal…

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Zinc: deficiency has been associated with pregnancy complications including growth
retardation, prolonged labour and abnormal deliveries.

Multivitamin and mineral supplements: should be avoided unless recommended.

EFAs: Low amount of omega 3 can mean low levels in the infant which can affect
growth and development especially the brain and retina.

Nutrient…

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Toxoplasmosis affects baby's eyes and nervous system causing deformities or even
blindness in eyes.

Salmonella
Avoid raw eggs or food that contains eggs that are raw or partially cooked. Raw meat
and chicken can also be a source of salmonella bacteria. Important to avoid food
contamination, symptoms of the disease…

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Late pregnancy

The estimated averaged requirement for energy increases during the last three months
of pregnancy, by an average of 800kJ per day. At this time a women's total energy
expenditure from physical activity is usually reduced. If a mother food intake is very low
at this stage and if…

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provided as well as a development in the ability to chew successfully and for early speech
development.

Breast feeding

During pregnancy, hormones cause tissues in the breast to grow and become ready to
secrete milk. After birth, the act of sucking by the baby stimulates the action of
hormones, which…

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Easily digested



Bottle feeding

If desired or if mothers cannot breast feed babies can be feed with a bottle. Once a
bottle has started to be used it is difficult to change to breast milk as the mother usually
stops producing it.
Most infant formulas are made from cow's milk…

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body heat over a relatively great surface area. A shortfall will have consequences on
growth.

Milk: (breast milk) as it is very nutritious and forms basis of babies diet for first few
months. Milk is deficient in iron; however, baby has stored supply.
Human milk is low in vitamin D…

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Weaning is also required to provide certain nutrients that can no longer be sufficiently
supplied by breast of formula milk. This applies to energy, protein, iron, zinc and
vitamins A and D. There is particular concern about iron deficiency which may result in
delayed development and cellular immunity.

As infants…

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Underweight and overweight: should be determined by gender and age of the infant.
Weight gain in children usually varies but it is only when body weight for height is
constantly high or low that further investigation is required.
Energy requirements still high however for growth and development. Children should be…

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