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Fat (lipids)

Contains elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

Chemistry of Fats:
98% of fats in foods are described as TRIGLYCERIDES. This is where one molecule of
GLYCOGEN is linked with 3 FATTY ACIDS
e.g.:




If the fatty acids are identical then the resulting triglyceride is a simple one

If it…

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Government Recommendations:

Total Fat= 35% of calorie intake

Saturated= 10% of this 35%



2. Unsaturated fat:




2a) Polyunsaturated (essential fatty acids PUFA's)

Required by the body in small quantities for the functioning of the body (cannot be
synthesised within the body). Therefore they must be supplied by diet.

Some PUFA's…

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DHA* is vital for the babies brain and eye development/growth. Important for
development of the nervous system in young adults.

Anti-inflammatory e.g. cod liver oil used to ease stiff joints

*DHA is normally found in breast milk of mothers who eat a healthy balanced diet but
may be inadequate in…

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The relative proportions of n-6 and n-3 acids in the Western diet have changed for a
number of reasons:

There has been an increase in consumption of vegetable oils (e.g. corn and
sunflower) as a result of healthy eating initiatives, to replace the traditional
consumption of butter and other animal…

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Tran's fats raise blood cholesterol and are found in hydrogenated margarines and
shortenings as well as products made from them e.g. cakes and biscuits

Formed when cooking oils are reused

Or when polyunsaturates are hardened by the chemical process of hydrogenation

May be listed as vegetable fats, hydrogenated fats or…

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3. Transportation and absorption

Fat is a vehicle for other nutrients (fat soluble vitamins and fatty acids)
Absorption of fat soluble vitamins depends on digestion/absorption of fats
People with low fat diets may have a deficiency in these vitamins (ADEK)


Functions of Fat:

1. A concentrated source of energy:

Fat…

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5. Carriers fat soluble vitamins



6. Sensory appeal

7. Digested slowly

Keeps hunger pangs at bay so snack less on unhealthy foods



Sources of fats

Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated

Omega 3 Omega 6

Cakes Olive oil Oily Fish Spreads

Biscuits Rapeseed oil Linseeds Dressings

Meat Sunflower oil Walnuts

Butter Avocado Soya…

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LDL cholesterol can:

Block arteries

Lead to heart attacks and stokes

LDL can be partially controlled by diet low in saturated fat, Tran's fats and oxidised
polyunsaturated fat as well as a diet high in monounsaturated, omega 3, DHA, EPA, fruit
and vegetables and soluble fibre



Benecol
Benecol foods contain…

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There may be a relationship between a high fat intake and an increased risk of certain
types of cancer (colorectal). There is moderate evidence linking a high fat diet with
increased breast cancer in women.



Fat and obesity

Fat is a concentrated source of energy and foods that are high…

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