Revision document, outlining:

  • Diet and cancer
  • Exercise and cancer
  • Enviorment and cancer
  • Statistics (Northern Ireland)
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  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 02-05-13 19:39

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Cancer: Term used to describe wide variety of growth which are composed of abnormal
or disorganised cells.
This occurs when normal cell renewal and replacement process goes out of control,
resulting in formation of abnormal cells. These don't function properly and if not
destroyed they develop and increase rapidly.
Cancer is 2nd major cause of death in Northern Ireland
¼ of all deaths in the UK are related to cancer
There are 200 different types of cancer but 4 of them account for
½ of all new cases. ­lung ­breast ­large bowel and ­prostate
Factors involved
1. Genetic factors: family history increases chances of developing cancer
2. Environmental: e.g. tobacco smoke, diet (can have positive and negative effect),
alcohol and geographical location.
3. Hormonal factors: affected by certain levels of hormones
Diet and Cancer
1. Fruit and Vegetables:
Northern Ireland is low in fruit and vegetables and therefore diets
are low in protective antioxidants to combat free radicals. Also many
other beneficial effects, such as insoluble fibre, are lost.
A high intake of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of many
different cancers e.g. lung, colon, large bowel. Antioxidants are
found in many fruit and vegetables and have a protective effect against the oxidative
damage to DNA by free radicals.
Phytochemical, found in plant found, are also protective chemical that help to combat
cancer. Examples of phytochemical are;
Lycopene: found in tomatoes may prevent cancer of the cervix, prostate and stomach
Glucosinolates: found in vegetable help the liver in its detoxifying function so may help
reduce tumour growth in the breast, liver and stomach
Flavonoids: found in citrus fruits protect against oxidative damage.
Phyto-oestrogens, found in leeks, broccoli and asparagus may slow down the progression
of cancer and protect against breast and prostate cancer.

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Fruit and vegetables also contain NSP which help to increase bulk increasing the transit
time for waste through the large intestine which means carcinogenic substances are
more dilute and have less contact time to disrupt cells.
Also a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is low in fat which enables a healthy weight to be
maintained.…read more

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Starchy food also provides other nutrients such as B vitamins. Starches are mainly
responsible for preventing colon or bowel cancer. A high fibre diet promotes satiety
reducing fat intakes. The protection from fibre may be explained in 2 ways:
1. The metabolism of fibre by bacteria in the gut may result in less carcinogenic end
2. Fibre increases faecal mass and may cause dilution of carcinogenic substances
within the bowel.
4. Alcohol
Intake in N.…read more

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Artificial sweeteners: At present the effect of artificial sweeteners on cancer is
still unknown. However it is thought that many sweeteners such as aspartame may cause
cancer and other life threating diseases.
9. Phyto-oestrogens: Found in large amounts in soya bean, may offer protection
against breast, bowels and prostate cancers
10. Phytochemicals: can kill cancer cells or stop normal cells from becoming
cancerous. Found in cherries, red wine, tea, apricots
11. Iron: can cause oxidative damage to cellular material, including DNA, by great
free radicals.…read more

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Buy organic if possible
Smoking and Cancer:
Linked to an increase in lung, head, oesophagus and skin cancer. Tobacco contains over
4000 different chemicals, many of which are carcinogenic. Smoke introduces free radical
into the body which are destructive to cells. Heavy smokers increase their risk 50 times
more than non-smokers.
Stress and Cancer:
Stress can lead to unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, overeating and heaving
drinking; all of which can lead to cancer.…read more



an excellent summary

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