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  • Created on: 02-05-13 19:52

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Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease entails CHD, heart failure and stroke. Overall CVD is responsible
for 238000 deaths per year in the UK. Many factors influence the risk of CVD including
diet and lifestyle factors such as hypertension and lack of physical exercise. Both diet and
lifestyle factors can have a positive or negative effect on the development of CVD.
What is it?
Two main events lead to the development of CVD:
Causes narrowing of blood vessels. When a large blood clot forms in the
Occurs when LDL cholesterol vessel
accumulates and oxidises in vessel
walls, causing them to `fur-up' If blood supply stops reaching heart a
heart attack occurs
Blood vessel wall become thicker- due
to accumulation of blood clot material If blood stops reaching brain a stroke
forming a hardened plaque occurs
Leads to reduced flow of blood to Blood clots form when cells in the
heart and may cause angina (chest blood (platelets) stick together
Dietary factors influence risk
What is cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a fat essential for the body in small amounts. It is produced in liver and
some can be obtained from foods. Cholesterol is a constituent of all cells e.g. brain cells
Cholesterol is carried in blood, around the body, by lipoproteins:
LDL- Low Density Lipoproteins: `Bad Cholesterol' as high levels can promote
accumulation of fat in vessel walls
HDL- High Density Lipoprotein: `Good Cholesterol' as it retrieves cholesterol from body
tissues and helps to transfer it to the liver for disposal.
Risk factors of developing CVD:
Being: -male ­older ­a cigarette smoker* ­very overweight* ­inactive* ­having a low birth
Having: -family history ­type 2 diabetes ­high blood cholesterol/pressure* ­high
homocysteine levels* ­high alcohol intake* ­low intake of fruit and vegetables*
Some risk factors interact with each other and their effect is cumulative (i.e snowball
effect). The following are also risk factors of CVD:
Obesity: obese people tend to have: -high blood cholesterol and pressure ­higher risk of
developing diabetes (risk factors of CVD)

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People gain weight if the amount of energy consumed exceeds energy used (energy
BMI: is a measure of obesity. An overweight BMI is 25 or above while an obese BMI is 30
or above.
Central Obesity:
Waist circumference should be less than: 37 INCHES (MEN) 32 INCHES (WOMEN)
Hypertension: blood pressure tends to be high in people: -who are obese ­drink access
alcohol ­take little exercise ­who smoke ­consume excess salt
Salt and hypertension:
Current consumption of salt in the UK is 9.…read more

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A) Omega 6: linoleic acid lowers blood cholesterol. Lowers LDL and HDL
B) Omega 3: alpha linoleic plays a protective role against heart attack by
preventing blood clots. Lowers LDL but not HDL cholesterol
Monounsaturated= Lower LDL but not HDL cholesterol
Trans fats= High LDL and lower HDL
Overall an increase in dietary fat will increase weight gain which is a risk factor of CVD
2. Fatty fish and fish oils:
Oil in fish is rich in omega 3.…read more

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Diet rich in antioxidants helps to prevent CVD. Free radicals can damage cells which can
lead to CVD. Antioxidants work to reduce LDL (lipid) oxidation e.g. development of LDL
There is a relationship between those who eat fruit and vegetable and the risk of death
from CVD.To ensure a full range of antioxidants in the diet it is recommended that
there is a:
Good mixture of wholegrain cereals (supply vitamin E)
Fresh seeds/nuts
Good colour mix of fruit and veg.…read more

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Soluble fibre (lower cholesterol)
Folic acid, B6 and B12 (lower Homocysteine)
Potassium (lower blood pressure)
NSP (lower total and LDL cholesterol)
Substitutes fatty foods with fruit and vegetables (weight loss)
9. Hypertension
1 in 5 of UK population are destined to develop high blood pressure which results in
increased risk of CVD and death.
High blood pressure increases wear and tear of heart and blood vessels which increases
the extent of deposition of cholesterol and other substances on damaged blood vessels.…read more

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Results showed that reducing dietary sodium lowered blood pressure. The DASH diet
also lowers level of Homocysteine.
10.Plant Sterol Esters
Help to reduce cholesterol if used a part of a healthy balanced diet.
11.Wholegrain cereals
Diet high in wholegrain has lower rated of CHD. Wholegrain contain vitamin E and
dietary fibre.
Iron is vital component of haemoglobin, which transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to
and from cells. Too much may increase risk of CVD.…read more

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Disease: people with type 2 diabetes have increased risk of heart disease, often
associated with obesity and raised cholesterol.
7. Smoking: carbon monoxide reduces amount of oxygen in blood so less oxygen
reaching heart. In addition heart beats faster raising blood pressure. Also free radicals
that enter body from smoke contribute to disease
8. Exercise: helps prevent obesity and lowers effects of stress. Physical activity reduces
blood pressure and help to prevent central fat deposition.
9.…read more


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