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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease entails CHD, heart failure and stroke. Overall CVD is responsible
for 238000 deaths per year in the UK. Many factors influence the risk of CVD including
diet and lifestyle factors such as hypertension and lack of physical exercise. Both diet and
lifestyle factors can have a…

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People gain weight if the amount of energy consumed exceeds energy used (energy

BMI: is a measure of obesity. An overweight BMI is 25 or above while an obese BMI is 30
or above.

Central Obesity:

Waist circumference should be less than: 37 INCHES (MEN) 32 INCHES (WOMEN)


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A) Omega 6: linoleic acid lowers blood cholesterol. Lowers LDL and HDL

B) Omega 3: alpha linoleic plays a protective role against heart attack by
preventing blood clots. Lowers LDL but not HDL cholesterol

Monounsaturated= Lower LDL but not HDL cholesterol

Trans fats= High LDL and lower HDL


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Diet rich in antioxidants helps to prevent CVD. Free radicals can damage cells which can
lead to CVD. Antioxidants work to reduce LDL (lipid) oxidation e.g. development of LDL

There is a relationship between those who eat fruit and vegetable and the risk of death
from CVD.To ensure a…

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Soluble fibre (lower cholesterol)


Folic acid, B6 and B12 (lower Homocysteine)

Potassium (lower blood pressure)

NSP (lower total and LDL cholesterol)

Substitutes fatty foods with fruit and vegetables (weight loss)

9. Hypertension

1 in 5 of UK population are destined to develop high blood pressure which results in

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Results showed that reducing dietary sodium lowered blood pressure. The DASH diet
also lowers level of Homocysteine.

10.Plant Sterol Esters

Help to reduce cholesterol if used a part of a healthy balanced diet.

11.Wholegrain cereals

Diet high in wholegrain has lower rated of CHD. Wholegrain contain vitamin E and

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6. Disease: people with type 2 diabetes have increased risk of heart disease, often
associated with obesity and raised cholesterol.

7. Smoking: carbon monoxide reduces amount of oxygen in blood so less oxygen
reaching heart. In addition heart beats faster raising blood pressure. Also free radicals
that enter body from…


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