Revision document, outlining:

  • Sugars and starches
  • Role of carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates and health
  • Glycaemic index
HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 02-05-13 19:47

First 92 words of the document:

What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are a group of nutrients important in the diet as a source of energy.
Carbohydrates are found in all plants. They are produced from CO2 and water.
Carbohydrates are made up of the elements:
Hydrogen and
There are various different carbohydrates, but they may be divided up into 3 groups
according to the size of their molecules:
1 molecule: Monosaccharaides Sugar
2 or more: Disaccharides ­ Sugar
A lot: Polysaccharides ­ Non Sugars (starch and NSP)

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Sugars and Starches
Starches: which are found in bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, pulses and breakfast cereals
Sugars: which give food its sweet taste and are found in fruits, soft drinks, table sugar,
sweets and cake
The main energy giving foods in the diet are those which contain considerable amount of
sugar, starch and fat. The main function is to provide energy. During digestion
carbohydrates are changed into glucose which is used for energy.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Intrinsic Sugars:
Intrinsic sugars are incorporated into the cellular structure e.g. sugars found in
unprocessed foods such as fruit and vegetables. No adverse effect on health.
Extrinsic Sugars
1 Sugars not bound into a cellular structure e.g. the lactose (Milk sugar) found in dairy
products. These do not have an adverse effect on your health.
2 However, they can also be termed as NMES- Non Milk Extrinsic Sugars. These are often
found in confectionary and fizzy drinks.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Functions of carbohydrates:
Starches are known as `complex Carbohydrates' Starch is found in potatoes, bread,
pasta and rice. Non Starch polysaccharides (NSP) are found in fruit, vegetables, beans
and wholegrain cereals.
What are the advantages of eating more starchy foods?
There is scientific evidence that a diet high in complex carbohydrates is very
healthy and helps to keep blood sugar levels constant.
Starchy foods also provide other nutrient, for example bread provides protein.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Sources of NSP
Whole grain cereals
Fruit and Vegetables (with skin on if possible)
Pulse vegetables e.g. beans, peas and lentils
Root vegetables such as carrots, turnip
Wholemeal bread, flour and pasta
Brown rice.
Types of NSP
Insoluble- absorbs water and increases in bulk. This helps the stools to become
soft and bulky to keep the gut in good working order. This prevents constipation
and bowel disorders.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Sugar is not the only major culprit in the development of diabetes
Weight gain can only occur if energy content of a person's diet exceeds energy
Remember; 1g Carbohydrates=3.75calories 1g fat=9 calories
Dental Caries
Tooth decay in early childhood affects one in ten of all 3-4
year olds in the UK.
Teeth are generally covered in a layer of plaque made up of bacteria.
The dietary sugars provide the factor for the multiplication of oral
bacteria and production of acid.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Development of Tooth Decay
Sugars themselves do not attack the teeth, but they are converted to acid by
streptococcal bacteria in the mouth and the acids formed attack and erode the hard
enamel surface of the teeth.
The frequency of ingestion is a s important in causing dental caries as the quantity of
sugar eaten.
Fluoride (in water and toothpaste) helps to increase the resistance of tooth enamel to
acid attack.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

The GI of a food is a measure of how quickly glucose is released into the
bloodstream after eating
The GI index is a way of assessing and measuring the effects of food on
blood sugar levels
High GI
Foods that break down quickly during digestion have the highest glycaemic index. They
raise blood sugar levels higher and more quickly than foods with a low GI.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

How much do we need?
The COMA report recommends:
18 grams per day for adults (with a range of 12 to 24 grams per day)
The COMA report recommends:
50% of food energy from carbohydrates
39% of food energy from starches
11% of food energy from sugars
Children and carbohydrates:
Children should not eat a diet high in fibre because of their body size.
Also their diet could be very bulky and filling which makes it difficult for them to
fulfil their other nutritional needs.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Home Economics resources:

See all Home Economics resources »See all resources »