Revision document, outlining:

  • Symptoms
  • Risk factors
  • Types of diabetes
  • Glycaemic index
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  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 02-05-13 19:57

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Diabetes is a major cause of premature illness and death through the increased risk of
cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes.
Cardiovascular disease is accountable for between 50% and 80%
of deaths in people with diabetes.
Diabetes is also a leading cause of blindness of blindness, amputation and kidney failure.
Diabetes is a common chronic condition that occurs when the pancreas doesn't
produce enough insulin or when the insulin produced is not effective
Insulin controls the process of moving glucose from the blood into the body's
cells. In diabetes this process fails and the amount of glucose in blood becomes
too high (hyperglycaemia)
This can lead to serious damage of many of the body's systems (especially the
nerves and blood vessels) and results in complications such as eye damage and
poor circulation to the toes and feet.
Insulin is a hormone synthesised by the pancreas. It is responsible to help
control blood glucose levels. Insulin clears glucose from the blood and helps it to
enter cells.
Around 2.5 million people in the UK have diabetes and the numbers are
radically increasing. The increase may be linked to an increase in obesity
(obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes)
It is estimated that up to 750000 people may have diabetes without
knowing it.
An estimated 246 million people world-wide are affected by diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes:
Weight loss
Blurred vision
Slow healing of wounds
Need to pass urine more often (especially at night)
Increased thirst

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Itching of genital organs or repeated bouts of thrush
Is also known as insulin dependent diabetes and is an autoimmune condition in which the
immune system of the body turns against itself.
As a result insulin producing cells of the pancreas are destroyed therefore insulin is
unable to be made.…read more

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Diet: Dietary guidelines for those suffering from diabetes are similar to those provided
for normal, healthy people
-Keep physically active
Physical activity, combined with healthy eating and any insulin or
diabetes medication that you might be taking, will help you to
manage your diabetes and prevent long-term diabetes
-Smoking…read more

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If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, giving up smoking is one of the most positive
things you can do to both improve your health and reduce your risks of the long-term
complications associated with the condition
Starchy carbohydrates provide an important source of energy and fibre is important for
digestive health.
Carbohydrates and diabetes:
The level of glucose is carefully monitored and kept within narrow limits by the
action of the hormone insulin.…read more

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Cooking and processing of food
Metabolism and time of day
Other nutrients
Implications for health:
Foods with a low GI factor could help to control hunger, appetite and blood sugar levels.
A higher intake of low rather than high GI foods results in slower absorption of sugar into
the bloodstream. This in turn may help to regulate blood sugar levels.…read more


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