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Jemini Barchha

Psychology ­Research Methods
Independent Variable= The variable that is manipulated in an experiment
Dependent Variable= The variable that you measure in an experiment
Experimental Hypothesis= A precise, testable statement about the expected outcome of
the experiment (that IV will affect the DV)
Null Hypothesis= States that there will…

Page 2

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Jemini Barchha

Reduces demand characteristics Hard to replicate
-As participant's are in their natural -Can't control all variables in a natural
environment, so it is harder to the setting
guess aim from cues
Natural (Quasi) Experiments: -Quasi= Cannot manipulate IVs
-Group comparison
-Naturally occurring
e.g. Road traffic accidents before and…

Page 3

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Jemini Barchha

No individual differences Time consuming
-Matched participants in every -Takes a long time to match people.
variables, except independent Changeable.
variables, e.g. mood, IQ, etc.
Reduces demand characteristics
-As different participants are used

Extraneous Variables
Participant variables:
=Individual differences
E.g. Age, personality, ethnicity, experience, IQ, mood, memory, gender…

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Jemini Barchha

supposed to measure
Criterion/Concurrent validity
=Is a way of assessing validity by comparing the results with another measure
External Validity:
=Can the findings be generalised beyond the present study?
Ecological validity
Refers to the extent to which the findings can be generalised beyond the present situation
Population validity…

Page 5

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Jemini Barchha

Qualitative Data=Descriptive data >> Allows for elaboration, thoughts and opinions
Frequency tables= Creating a tally or total for each value of the data
Amount of Digits Letters
3-4 21 21
5-6 21 20
7-8 14 10
9-10 4 0
TOTAL 61 51

Measure of Central Tendency…

Page 6

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Jemini Barchha

Dispersion: Range and Standard Deviation
Range= The difference between the highest and the lowest `score'
Quick and easy the calculate Doesn't include all of the results
-Doesn't take up time -Less reliable
Outliers distort the results
-Less accurate

Standard deviation= Measures the spread of data collected…

Page 7

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Jemini Barchha

Ethical Issues
Informed consent=
-Should be briefed with as much information as possible about a study to enable them to
make an informed judgement as to whether to take part or not
-Lying about the aim
-Should only be used if there is no alternative
Right to…

Page 8

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Jemini Barchha

Easy to plot results
-Numerical data

Open questions:
=Allows for the participant to elaborate
-E.g. Why? Explanation? How?
Detailed Difficult to analyse
-Gives researcher deeper understanding into -Qualitative data, so you have unique
studied topic responses from your participants
-Need to turn into quantative data


Page 9

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Jemini Barchha

Non-participant observation= Observer remains outside the group being observed
Overt (Disclosed)= Participants aware they are being observed
Covert (Undisclosed)= Participants unaware they are being observed
Structured observation= Researcher determines precisely what types of behaviour are to
be observed and constructs a standardised checklist
Unstructured observation= Data gathered in…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha

Due to distorted intra-family relationships, hostility, discord or lack of

Research into institutional care
Hodges and Tizard
o Natural experiment
o No IV manipulation
>>Raised at home/institute
o Institution: High staff-turnover -> Different staff, so no
children-staff bond
o 65 Children…


Lizzie archibald


These are so helpful!

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