PSYA2 Psychology AQA AS

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GCE ­ AQA PSYCHOLOGY A ­ AS Award 1181
UNIT 2 ­ PSYA2 ­ 1 hour 30 minutes
Biological Psychology, Social Psychology and Individual Differences
UNIT 1 - Contents
BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY ­ STRESS
Stress as a Bodily Response
1. The body's response to stress
(a) The Fight or Flight Response 03
(b) Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome ­ GAS 04
2. The pituitary-adrenal system and the sympathomedullary pathway 04 - 05
3. Stress-related illness and the immune system 05 - 06
Stress in Everyday Life
1. Life Changes and Daily Hassles 07
2. Workplace Stress 08
3. Personality factors, including Type A behaviour 09
4. Emotion-focused and Problem-focused Approaches 10 - 11
5. Physiological Methods of Stress Management, drugs and biofeedback 11
6. Psychological Methods of Stress Management,
Hardiness Training and Stress Inoculation 12
7. The Role of Control in Coping with Stress 13
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ­ SOCIAL INFLUENCE
1. What is meant by the terms `obedience' and `conformity'? 14
2. Explain the terms `social norms' and `normative social influence'. 14
3. Public compliance and private acceptance. 15
4. Why do people conform? 15
5. A study of majority influence (Asch, 1951) 16
6. A study of obedience to authority (Milgram, 1963) 17 - 19
7. A study of obedience to authority (Hofling, 1966) 19
8. Outline 3 psychological factors that may lead people to obey. 20

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Social influence in everyday life
1. How can people resist pressures to conform and pressures to obey? 21
2. Conformist, anti-conformist, or independent? 21 - 22
3. What are the main ethical principles in social research? 23 - 24
4. Would research into social influence as carried out by Hofling, 24 - 25
Milgram and Zimbardo be ethically acceptable today?
5. What are the implications for social change of research 25 - 27
into social influence?
6.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY ­ STRESS
Stress as a bodily response
The body's response to stress, including the pituitary-adrenal system
and the sympathomedullary pathway in outline
Stress-related illness and the immune system
1. The body's response to stress
(a) The Fight or Flight Response
When people feel in danger or under threat, they go into a state of arousal. Stress
provokes the fight-or-flight response; either we prepare to flee from the danger or we are
attracted to a suitable target.…read more

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Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Hans Selye (1956) defined stress as the non-specific response of the body to any demand
made upon it. This response reflects the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), the body's
defence against stress. The body responds in the same way to any stressor, whether it's
environmental (e.g. extreme temperature, or electric shock) or arises from within the
body itself.
The GAS comprises three stages: ALARM reaction, RESISTANCE and EXHAUSTION.…read more

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Like the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands are made up of two parts: the adrenal cortex
(the outer part), and the adrenal medulla (the centre or inner part). When an individual is
aroused, the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) speeds up
bodily activity. This involves increasing heart rate and stimulating certain glands,
including the adrenal medulla to secrete the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline
which further increase arousal.…read more

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Alzheimer's disease, are all involved in reduced immune function.
Glaser (1986) assessed 40 medical students 6 weeks before they took important
examinations. He asked the students to complete a questionnaire and also took blood
samples. He then medically assessed the students again during the actual period of
examination by taking and analysing more blood samples.
During the examination period, Glaser noted high levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline,
the `stress hormones', in the students' blood.…read more

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Stress in everyday life
Life changes and daily hassles
Workplace stress
Personality factors, including Type A behaviour
Distinction between emotion-focused and problem-focused approaches
to coping with stress
Psychological and physiological methods of stress management, including
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and drugs
1. Life Changes and Daily Hassles
Life events include changes that happen to most people, such as leaving school, marriage,
having children, and much less common ones, such as imprisonment, and being fired at
work. Holmes & Rahe (1967) constructed an instrument for measuring stress.…read more

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Workplace Stress
Social isolation. In some work situations, workers are isolated from each other for long
periods of time. This often happens on production lines where machines control the work
operations. Workers have few opportunities to communicate socially with each other.
Social isolation is related to various indicators of stress, for example, high levels of
adrenaline and noradrenaline. Work should be organised so that workers have regular
opportunities for social contact with each other.
Work overload.…read more

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Personality factors, including Type A behaviour
Psychologists investigating stress have focussed on two personality types: Type A and
Type B.
Characteristics of Type A include an overriding need to achieve, a highly competitive
nature and a tendency to show anger and hostility. In contrast, Type B individuals tend to
be more relaxed and are far less hostile and aggressive.…read more

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Emotion-focused and Problem-focused Approaches to Coping with Stress
David has unexpectedly been made redundant. David sits down and considers the options
open to him and their likely outcomes. He decides on his priorities and acts directly to
deal with the stressful situation. David has adopted a problem-focused approach to
coping with stress.
Jon has unexpectedly been made redundant. He feels angry and frustrated, and he vents
those feelings.…read more

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