Overview Booklet: AS AQA Spec A 'Stress'

I created this booklet during my course to help me revise. If you're aiming for a grade B or so, this booklet is about your level.

I think it's the formatting, the way it looks, which makes it easy to remember. There aren't any chunks of text to wade through, it's mostly in bulletpoints and pretty boxes.

I hope it's useful. :)

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AS Psychology Notes

STRESS
Contents
The Body's Response to Stress
Acute Stress
Chronic Stress
Stress and Immunity
The Immune System
Studies
Evaluation
Stress and Heart Disease
Studies
Stress and Depression
Studies
Life Changes
Studies
Evaluation
Real Life Application
Daily Hassles
Studies
Evaluation
Workplace Stress
Studies
Evaluation
Personality Factors and Stress…

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Threat and Coping
Evaluation
Psychological Methods of Stress Management
Stress Inoculation Training
Evaluation
Hardiness Training
Evaluation
Physiological Methods of Stress Management
Evaluation
Individual Differences







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The Body's Response to Stress
Acute Stress
Fight or flight is the body's response to acute stress. Physiological changes in the body are caused
by the release of adrenaline, triggered through the SAM Pathway. The SAM Pathway is the fast
pathway (an immediate response) which changes the state of the…

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Chronic Stress
The HPA Pathway is the slower pathway (a gradual response) which changes the state of the body
in response to a stressor. It uses a series of hormones to eventually trigger the production of
cortisol which causes the physiological changes in the body.






























Individual Differences
Different levels of…

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Stress and Immunity

Stressors can cause physical, emotional and behavioural changes.









Coping mechanisms help people deal with stress. These can be maladaptive (harmful) or
adaptive (productive). Maladaptive coping mechanisms can lead to heart attacks, depression,
obesity, high blood pressure. Stress also suppresses the immune system.

The Immune System
White blood…

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Expensive longitudinal studies need to be used but most studies are too short and
therefore not reliable.

There are also significant gender differences so experiments cannot be generalised.


Stress and Heart Disease


Studies
There are both fixed and variable factors which can determin a person's risk level of cardiovascular
disorders.…

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Both of these studies support the link that stress can contribute towards depression.





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Life Changes


Studies
Holmes and Rahe (1967)
Holmes and Rahe observed that major life events (both positive and negative) seemed to come
before physical illness.
They developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. It includes 43 life events taken from an
analysis of 5000 patient records. All of the life changes…

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219 suicide cases were examined in Finland. Contrary to popular belief, it is largely negative life
changes that precede suicides rather than living along and diminished opportunities for social
interaction.


Daily Hassles


Studies
Delongis et al (1982) devised the hassles and uplifts scale. Gervais (2005) found that daily uplifts
can…

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Studies
Marmot et al (1997)
7372 civil servants answered a questionnaire and were checked for cardiovascular disorders. They
were reassessed five years later. Although there was no link between workload and illness, there
was a positive correlation between job control and illness.
Johansson et al (1978)
Sawmill workers who have…

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