Overview Booklet: AS AQA Spec A 'Stress'

I created this booklet during my course to help me revise. If you're aiming for a grade B or so, this booklet is about your level.

I think it's the formatting, the way it looks, which makes it easy to remember. There aren't any chunks of text to wade through, it's mostly in bulletpoints and pretty boxes.

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Preview of Overview Booklet: AS AQA Spec A 'Stress'

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AS Psychology Notes
STRESS
Contents
The Body's Response to Stress
Acute Stress
Chronic Stress
Stress and Immunity
The Immune System
Studies
Evaluation
Stress and Heart Disease
Studies
Stress and Depression
Studies
Life Changes
Studies
Evaluation
Real Life Application
Daily Hassles
Studies
Evaluation
Workplace Stress
Studies
Evaluation
Personality Factors and Stress
Studies
Personality Testing
The Hardy Personality
Studies
Evaluation
Coping with Stress
Types of coping
Health Outcomes
Exam Stress
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Threat and Coping
Evaluation
Psychological Methods of Stress Management
Stress Inoculation Training
Evaluation
Hardiness Training
Evaluation
Physiological Methods of Stress Management
Evaluation
Individual Differences
2…read more

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The Body's Response to Stress
Acute Stress
Fight or flight is the body's response to acute stress. Physiological changes in the body are caused
by the release of adrenaline, triggered through the SAM Pathway. The SAM Pathway is the fast
pathway (an immediate response) which changes the state of the body in response to a stressor. It
uses the sympathetic nervous system to release adrenaline.…read more

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Stress and Immunity
Stressors can cause physical, emotional and behavioural changes.
Coping mechanisms help people deal with stress. These can be maladaptive (harmful) or
adaptive (productive). Maladaptive coping mechanisms can lead to heart attacks, depression,
obesity, high blood pressure. Stress also suppresses the immune system.
The Immune System
White blood cells (leucocytes) are located in both bone marrow and the blood stream. In bone
marrow white blood cells, or B cells, produce proteins called antibodies. This is called Th2
immunity.…read more

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Expensive longitudinal studies need to be used but most studies are too short and
therefore not reliable.
There are also significant gender differences so experiments cannot be generalised.
Stress and Heart Disease
Studies
There are both fixed and variable factors which can determin a person's risk level of cardiovascular
disorders.
Fixed Risk Factors Variable Risk Factors
Genetics High LDL Cholesterol
Ethnicity Hypertension
Sex Inactivity
Age Obesity
Diabetes
High Cortisolreactive proteins
Friedman and Rosenman (1974)
3200 American men were tested.…read more

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Both of these studies support the link that stress can contribute towards depression.…read more

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Life Changes
Studies
Holmes and Rahe (1967)
Holmes and Rahe observed that major life events (both positive and negative) seemed to come
before physical illness.
They developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. It includes 43 life events taken from an
analysis of 5000 patient records. All of the life changes required large amounts of change in the
patients' lives. 400 participants scored each event in terms of how much readjustment would be
required, taking marriage as a baseline value of 50.…read more

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Finland. Contrary to popular belief, it is largely negative life
changes that precede suicides rather than living along and diminished opportunities for social
interaction.
Daily Hassles
Studies
Delongis et al (1982) devised the hassles and uplifts scale. Gervais (2005) found that daily uplifts
can cancel out the effect of some daily hassles. However, hassles can cause depression and are
now broadly accepted as a comparable to, if not greater than, life changes as a significant source
of stress.…read more

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Studies
Marmot et al (1997)
7372 civil servants answered a questionnaire and were checked for cardiovascular disorders. They
were reassessed five years later. Although there was no link between workload and illness, there
was a positive correlation between job control and illness.
Johansson et al (1978)
Sawmill workers who have high risk, repetitive, fast and highly responsible work had higher levels of
adrenaline in their urine. The participants also had higher levels of stress hormones on work days.…read more

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