Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Research methods notes

Research method Description Strengths Limitations
Experimental A research method which Offer a high level of Most are laboratory
methods enables a researcher to control over extraneous based meaning the
manipulate the situation a variables which makes environment is
person is in and see what effect it easier…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Observational studies These involve watching and Findings from It is difficult to make
recording people's behaviour. observations are more judgements about
This can be done in a number of reliable as the thoughts and feelings
ways including video recording researchers can see for when using this
and using a check…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
difficult to establish
cause and effect.

Qualitative and quantitative

Qualitative Quantitative
Definition Qualitative research gathers information that is Quantitative research gathers data in
not in numerical form. For example, diary numerical form which can be put into
accounts, open-ended questionnaires, categories, or in rank order, or
unstructured interviews and unstructured…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Less easy to generalise Research is usually carried out In
Difficult to make systematic comparisons as an unnatural, artificial environment
responses are so varied Development of standard
Dependent upon the skills of the researcher questions by researchers can lead
to structural bias and false
Collect a much narrower ad…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Dependent variable ­ a variable whose value depends on that of another and is measured after
the IV may have had an effect on it.

Confounding variable ­ an extraneous variable in an n experiment which may have affected the
DV which cannot be controlled.

Extraneous variable ­ undesirable variables…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
This is equivalent to choosing names out of a hat although a computer is more likely to make
the choice.

Advantages Disadvantages

It avoids bias as the researcher has no There is a chance of a `freak' sample
control over who is selected. which would not be representative
The law…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
groups (normally randomly) so that they are proportionately represented in the sample.

Advantages Disadvantages
It avoids the problem of `freak' samples, It is more time consuming than other
guaranteeing a representative sample by techniques because all potential
making sure all key characteristics are participants need to be assessed and

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Experimental method

There are 3 different types of experiment:

Laboratory experiment
Field experiment

Laboratory experiment - an experiment carried out in a controlled environment.

The method whereby all the key features of the experiment are met. That is, the IV is directly
manipulated, all the other extraneous variables are…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Random allocation ­ allocating participants by chance; each participant has an equal chance of
ending up in each condition

Ecological validity ­ the extent to which a situation reflects real life

Experimental condition ­ the condition where a variable is actually tested

Control condition ­ the condition that acts as…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
1. Standardisation ­ making things the same across the conditions. An experimenter may
standardise factors such as participants, the environment, tasks, measures and instructions.

2. Counterbalancing ­ often used in repeated measures design to avoid order effects. The order
in which conditions are encountered for is balanced out across all…




you are genuinely my hero! 



This is brilliant, thank you!






Hey you didnt complete the methods of self- report part? do you still have it? 

And thank you.



Great! Thank you 

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »