AQA Psychology Revision Notes Unit 1

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Encoding/Capacity/Duration
Encoding is the form in which information is stored in the memory.
Information enters the brain via the senses (e.g. eyes and ears) and is then stored in
forms such as visual codes (picture), acoustic form (sounds) or a semantic form (the
meaning of something).
o Visually ­ Thinking of an image
o Acoustically ­ Saying the word repeatedly
o Semantically ­ (through meaning) using your knowledge of the word
Capacity is how much information can be stored in the memory.
It is measured in terms of bits of information, such as number of digits.
Duration is how long the information can be stored in the memory.
Encoding Capacity Duration
STM Acoustic ­ 7+/-2 ­ 20-30 secs ­
Baddeley Miller Peterson
LTM Semantically ­ Unlimited Bahrick
Baddeley
STM:
Research Study: encoding
Baddeley ­ Lab experiment. Participants were given lists of acoustically similar and
dissimilar words and semantically similar and dissimilar words.
Showed that participants had more difficulty remembering acoustically similar words
in STM.
Research Study: capacity
Miller ­ Reviewed previous research and concluded that the span of STM is 7+/-2.
He also found that chunking things together makes it easier to recall.
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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Research Study: duration
Peterson ­ Lab experiment. Participants were given a nonsense trigram and a
three digit number to remember. They were asked to count backwards from the
number between different intervals to prevent rehearsal.
Showed that participants could remember 90% with a 3 second interval but only 5%
after 18 seconds, suggesting the duration of STM is 20-30 seconds.…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
o Information first arrives at SM. Once attention is paid to the information it
transfers to the STM.
o Information in STM is in a fragile state. If the information is not rehearsed
then the information is lost (decays).
o New information enters known as displacement.
o However, if the information is rehearsed then the information further
transfers into the LTM for a more permanent storage.…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Has plenty of research to support the idea of encoding capacity and duration and also
the different stores.
Shallice and Warrington ­ Reported the case study of KF who had a reduced STM due
to an accident, yet his LTM was unaffected. This supports the idea of separate STM
and LTM stores.
MSM is over-simplified in assuming that there is only a single STM and LTM. Research
suggests there are several types of STM and LTM.…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Central executive monitors and coordinates mental functions in the WM. It allocates
`slave systems' to tasks. It has limited capacity.
Phonological Loop deals with auditory information. It is divided into two parts:
o Phonological store (inner ear) - stores the words you hear.
o Articulatory process (inner voice) - allows maintenance rehearsal ­ repeating
the words.
Research sturdy: PL
Baddeley ­ Lab experiment. Reported on the word length effect.…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Research study: Dual-task performance
Baddeley & Hitch - Lab experiment. They demonstrated that participants
performed slower when they were given a task involving the CE and the articulatory
loop, rather than articulatory loop alone.
Evaluation:
Emphasises process more than the MSM and gives more detailed understanding of
STM.
Plenty of research support for different stores dual-task performance.
WMM concerns itself only with STM.
Many of the research studies are laboratory studies and lack ecological validity.…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Post-event information is information given to the witness after the event e.g.
leading questions.
Research Study: post-event information
Loftus & Palmer ­ Different set of students were shown a film of a car accident.
They were asked questions a week later about whether broken glass was seen, with
the same words used previously.
Showed that those participants asked questions including the word `smashed'
claimed there was broken glass (there was none).…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Medium level of anxiety enhanced accuracy in recall, but higher level of anxiety
decreased accuracy in recall.
Age
Research Study: Younger more accurate?
Anastasi & Rhodes ­ Young and middle-aged people were significantly more
accurate in recall of faces than those who were old aged.
Evaluation ­ (Own-age bias) All age groups are accurate when the faces were of
their own age group.…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Cognitive Interview is a procedure for police interviews of witnesses to facilitate
accurate, detailed recall. It has four CI components:
o Change of Order- Recount the scene in a different chronological order e.g.
from end to beginning
o Change of Perspective ­ Looking at the scene from different perspectives
o Mental Reinstatement of Context ­ Return to the environmental (weather,
place) and emotional (feeling) context of the scene.…read more

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]
Research Study: External
Abernethy ­ Tested participants with familiar and unfamiliar instructors and teaching
rooms.
Showed that participants performed best with a familiar instructor/room, suggesting
that familiar external cues are useful for memory recall.
2) Chunking is combining items into meaningful units e.g. phone numbers
Research Study: chunking
Baddeley ­ Length of words being chunked affected recall.
3) Mnemonics are various techniques facilitating recall.…read more

Comments

Chris

Awesome stuff, where is the rest?

Janki

Got anything for Attatchment?

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