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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]




Encoding/Capacity/Duration


Encoding is the form in which information is stored in the memory.
Information enters the brain via the senses (e.g. eyes and ears) and is then stored in
forms such as visual codes (picture), acoustic form (sounds) or a semantic…

Page 2

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]




Research Study: duration

Peterson ­ Lab experiment. Participants were given a nonsense trigram and a
three digit number to remember. They were asked to count backwards from the
number between different intervals to prevent rehearsal.

Showed that participants could remember 90%…

Page 3

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]


o Information first arrives at SM. Once attention is paid to the information it
transfers to the STM.
o Information in STM is in a fragile state. If the information is not rehearsed
then the information is lost (decays).
o New…

Page 4

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]


Has plenty of research to support the idea of encoding capacity and duration and also
the different stores.
Shallice and Warrington ­ Reported the case study of KF who had a reduced STM due
to an accident, yet his LTM was…

Page 5

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]




Central executive monitors and coordinates mental functions in the WM. It allocates
`slave systems' to tasks. It has limited capacity.
Phonological Loop deals with auditory information. It is divided into two parts:
o Phonological store (inner ear) - stores the words…

Page 6

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]




Research study: Dual-task performance

Baddeley & Hitch - Lab experiment. They demonstrated that participants
performed slower when they were given a task involving the CE and the articulatory
loop, rather than articulatory loop alone.




Evaluation:
Emphasises process more than the MSM…

Page 7

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]




Post-event information is information given to the witness after the event e.g.
leading questions.



Research Study: post-event information

Loftus & Palmer ­ Different set of students were shown a film of a car accident.
They were asked questions a week later…

Page 8

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]


Medium level of anxiety enhanced accuracy in recall, but higher level of anxiety
decreased accuracy in recall.




Age



Research Study: Younger more accurate?

Anastasi & Rhodes ­ Young and middle-aged people were significantly more
accurate in recall of faces than those…

Page 9

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]


Cognitive Interview is a procedure for police interviews of witnesses to facilitate
accurate, detailed recall. It has four CI components:
o Change of Order- Recount the scene in a different chronological order e.g.
from end to beginning
o Change of Perspective…

Page 10

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EXAM 10th Jan 12 [PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVISION NOTES]




Research Study: External

Abernethy ­ Tested participants with familiar and unfamiliar instructors and teaching
rooms.

Showed that participants performed best with a familiar instructor/room, suggesting
that familiar external cues are useful for memory recall.



2) Chunking is combining items into meaningful…

Comments

Chris

Awesome stuff, where is the rest?

Janki

Got anything for Attatchment?

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