AQA AS psychology Unit 1 notes

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Joe Verbena
Multi- store Model of Memory (MSM)
Proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin.
Sensory memory detect info, this info is then passed onto short term memory
(STM). If this info is rehearsed it is then passed to the Long term memory (LTM).
Info is lost if not rehearsed in STM.
Sensory Memory
o Duration 0-18 seconds, Capacity 7+/-2 items (Millers magic number, Encoding
o Duration unlimited, Capacity unlimited, Encoding semantically.
o Conrad (1964): Investigated how STM encodes. Use string of letter e.g
`ADESTO'. The letters were presented on the screen very quickly and PP's
would have to recall. Letter such a B and V were muddled up with P whereas
S was rarely muddled up to be a P. Found it was the sound of the letters
that matters in encoding of STM, therefore STM encodes acoustically.
o Jacobs (1890) investigated capacity of STM the (serial digit span). Presented
a number/letter every half a second using a metronome. PPs would have to
see how many they could remember. Found that average digit span for
numbers was nine whereas for letters was just 7. From his research it has
been concluded capacity is between 5 and 9 items.
o Peterson and Peterson (1959) investigated duration of STM, laboratory
experiment. Wanted to know duration of STM with no rehearsal. 24 PP's
were given a string of 3 letters called trigrams, they then were asked to count
back in threes for a set amount of time (the retention interval). One
retention interval was reached PP's were asked to recall the trigram. It was
found that after 0 seconds the recall accuracy was 90%, after 18 seconds it
dropped to 5%. Concluded the length of STM without rehearsal was 18
seconds. Eval: Laboratory experiment, so the experiment lacks ecological
validity as trigrams are not related to normal tasks we carry out. Only
students are used so the results do not reflect the general population.
o Barrick et al (1975) investigated the duration on LTM. US PP'S. 3 main tasks.
First pp's had to recall as many names of ex-classmates. Second some
yearbook pictures were mixed with others the PP'S had not seen previsiosly
and then shown to the PP's. Third the PP's were asked to recognise names
of people from school. Found that verbal and visual recognition was highest
in those who had left school less than 15 years previously. Shows LTM lasts a
very long time. Shows that LTM is not necessarily permanent, LTM gets
worse over time. Shows we remember better through recognition than
recall. Eval: Shows memory can last a lot longer than previously shown, could
be down to the study using more meaningful stimuli (As LTM encoded
semantically). PP's may have rehearsed names and faces therefore the
experiment lacks control, results may not necessarily be reliable. Could break

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Joe Verbena
ethics as there may not be permission for the researchers to use the
o The information about the 3 stores are supported by research e.g Conrad
supports the idea of STM acoustic encoding.
o Distinction between STM and LTM supported by many studies. Shallice and
Warrington (1974) found that one person (called KF) could not recall more
than one or two items in a digit span test. He however had no problems with
his LTM.…read more

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Joe Verbena
Show process of information as well as explaining the storage.
It shows there are more than one way to encode information.
The central executive has not been researched enough to fully understand it.
It does not say much about the LTM.
It does not explain the visuo spatial sketchpad in detail.
Study Baddeley and Hitch (1976)
Showed that if two tasks require different components then performance on each
will be ok. If two tasks require the same component performance suffers.…read more

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Supports reconstructive memory hypothesis where information retained at the time
of an event can be altered or influence in some way by information presented after
the event.
Well controlled experiment although it lacks ecological validity as it is a laboratory
You can't tell whether memory is distorted it could just be demand characteristics.
Universally based students ­ lacks validity as it's not the general population can't be
Can affect recall. This was tested by Loftus.…read more

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Fisher (1987) found witnesses were frequently bombarded with brief, direct
Witnesses often interrupted and not allowed to finish.
Fisher felt this was unhelpful as it produced shorter questions and less detail.
Therefore they was not getting accurate accounts of events.
The cognitive interview developed by Geiselman:
The context is reinstated ­ Witness asked to recall the scene, the weather, what you
felt at the time and what you were feeling.…read more

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An attachment is a strong emotional relationship between two people that develops over
time and is reciprocal.
Evolutionary perspective (Bowlby)
This theory says that's attachment is a behaviour that has evolved because of survival and
Monotropy: The innate drive that a child has to secure attachment for long term benefits.
Attachment increases childs survival chances.
There is a limited window for the development of attachment.…read more

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Secure base: Having an attachment allows the child to explore the environment whilst having
a secure base to come back to if they feel threatened.
Secure attachment: Allows child to be more confident, allows independence.
Internal working model: The infant develops a model about emotional relationships. This
model is a cluster of concepts about relationships and what to expect from others. If
relationships are consistent and if they make you feel good.
Continuity hypothesis: The link between early attachment and later emotional behaviour.…read more

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Harlow's Monkey's:
o Laboratory experiment (lacks ecological validity)
o Harlow made two wire monkeys, one had a bottle (food) and one was wrapped in
cloth (comfort).
o Learning theory says that the monkey should have been attached to the monkey
who offered food, but the monkeys were actually attached to the monkey that was
wrapped in cloth. Harlow scared the monkeys away which made them seek one of
the wire monkey.…read more

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Findings: 3 main types of attachment. From this study a 4 type was added insecure disorganised.
60-65% secure. 20% Insecure anxious. 12% Insecure resistant. 5-10% insecure disorganised.…read more

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Grossman and Grossman (Germany): Found that there are different child rearing practises
that affect attachments. E.g Parents and children keep a distance between them, so they
seem to be insecurely attached.
Takahashi (Japan): Found that Japanese children are rarely left on their own, when they
conducted the experiment 90% of the trails were stopped as the child was too distressed.
The distress of being left may appear that they are insecurely attached.…read more



this is really good lol


lol i agree Moxham


REALLY GOOD, thank you

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