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GCE ­ AQA PSYCHOLOGY A ­ AS Award 1181

UNIT 1 ­ PSYA1 ­ 1 hour 30 minutes
Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology and Research Methods


UNIT 1 - Contents

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ­ MEMORY

Models of Memory

1. Encoding, capacity and duration 03
2. The capacity of human memory 03
3.…

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Attachment in everyday life

1. The effects of day care on social development 21
2. The effects of day care on cognitive development 22 - 23
3. The effects of day care on aggression and peer relations 23 - 26
4. Implications of research into attachment and day care 26…

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - MEMORY

Models of memory
The multi-store model, including the concepts of encoding, capacity and duration.
Strengths and weaknesses of the model.
The working memory model, including its strengths and weaknesses


1. ENCODING, CAPACITY and DURATION

Encoding refers to the form in which information can be stored in…

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The main method of encoding information in STM is acoustic ­ by sound, but other
forms of encoding are also used. The main method in LTM is semantic.

Data stored in STM is vulnerable to loss, through either rapid decay of the memory trace
(20-30 seconds) or displacement by new…

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Research has shown that STM has a limited capacity and limited duration. LTM has
unlimited capacity and unlimited duration. STM prefers acoustic coding (sound) while LTM
prefers semantic coding (meaning).

Information from STM can be lost through displacement and decay. Information in LTM
cannot be lost but may be difficult…

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This system sees the STM as much more than a passing-through point for information
going in and out of the long-term memory (LTM).

The WMM sees the short-term memory as being divided into four parts:
the central executive, that controls the system,
the articulatory loop, that stores information in acoustic…

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Memory in everyday life
Eyewitness testimony (EWT) and factors affecting the accuracy of EWT,
including anxiety, age of witness
Misleading information and the use of the cognitive interview
Strategies for memory improvement


1. RESEARCH INTO EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY

Research has shown that information can be added to a particular memory after…

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Loftus also demonstrated that not all memories are distorted. Her study involving a red
purse being stolen from a handbag demonstrates that the memory for major facts is not
easily misled. It is the minor details of an event that are likely to be mis-remembered.

Almost all of Loftus's conclusions…

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3: FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF EYEWITNESS
TESTIMONY, INCLUDING ANXIETY, and AGE OF WITNESS

Research has revealed that a number of factors can affect the accuracy of testimony given
by eyewitnesses to an event. These factors include obvious ones such as the physical
condition of the witness (drunk), the viewing…

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is causing the anxiety. This means we may have very accurate recall of the central details
of what we witness, but less accurate recall of details on the periphery.

Human beings tend to become anxious in the presence of violence. Loftus and Burns
(1982) conducted an experiment showing how witnessing…

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