AQA AS Psychology PSYA1

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UNIT 1 ­ PSYA1 ­ 1 hour 30 minutes
Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology and Research Methods
UNIT 1 - Contents
Models of Memory
1. Encoding, capacity and duration 03
2. The capacity of human memory 03
3. STM and LTM compared and contrasted 03 - 04
4. A Multi-store Model of Memory 04 - 05
5. A Working Memory Model 05 - 06
Memory in Everyday Life
1. Research into eyewitness testimony 07 - 08
2. A study of eyewitness testimony 08
3. The accuracy of eyewitness testimony 09 - 10
4. Use of the Cognitive Interview 10 - 11
5. Strategies for improving memory 11 - 12
6. Effects of age on eyewitness testimony 13
1. Attachment, Privation, and Deprivation 14
2. Ainsworth's Strange Situation 14 - 15
3. Secure and insecure attachment 15
4. Cross-cultural variations in attachment 15 - 16
5. An investigation into cross-cultural variations in attachment 16
6. How learning theory explains attachment 16 - 17
7. The evolutionary explanation of attachment 17 - 18
8. Disruption of attachment 18
9. The effects of privation ­ Tizard and Hodges (1989) 18 - 19
10. The effects of institutionalisation 19 - 20

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Attachment in everyday life
1. The effects of day care on social development 21
2. The effects of day care on cognitive development 22 - 23
3. The effects of day care on aggression and peer relations 23 - 26
4.…read more

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Models of memory
The multi-store model, including the concepts of encoding, capacity and duration.
Strengths and weaknesses of the model.
The working memory model, including its strengths and weaknesses
Encoding refers to the form in which information can be stored in STM and LTM.
Encoding is not usually an automatic process; attention must be paid to information for it
to be encoded though some traumatic experiences may be encoded automatically, e.g.
witnessing a car crash.…read more

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The main method of encoding information in STM is acoustic ­ by sound, but other
forms of encoding are also used. The main method in LTM is semantic.
Data stored in STM is vulnerable to loss, through either rapid decay of the memory trace
(20-30 seconds) or displacement by new data entering STM.
The main method in LTM is semantic,
i.e. we remember things more easily when they have meaning for us.
LTM seems to have unlimited capacity.…read more

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Research has shown that STM has a limited capacity and limited duration. LTM has
unlimited capacity and unlimited duration. STM prefers acoustic coding (sound) while LTM
prefers semantic coding (meaning).
Information from STM can be lost through displacement and decay. Information in LTM
cannot be lost but may be difficult to retrieve unless we have a cue to trigger the memory.
+ Studies tend to confirm that memory does have distinct stores. Baddeley demonstrated
that STM prefers acoustic coding while LTM prefers semantic coding.…read more

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This system sees the STM as much more than a passing-through point for information
going in and out of the long-term memory (LTM).…read more

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Memory in everyday life
Eyewitness testimony (EWT) and factors affecting the accuracy of EWT,
including anxiety, age of witness
Misleading information and the use of the cognitive interview
Strategies for memory improvement
Research has shown that information can be added to a particular memory after the event
itself, and that this information can be recalled as part of the original memory.…read more

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Loftus also demonstrated that not all memories are distorted. Her study involving a red
purse being stolen from a handbag demonstrates that the memory for major facts is not
easily misled. It is the minor details of an event that are likely to be mis-remembered.
Almost all of Loftus's conclusions are based on experiments in laboratories, usually with
students watching a short film followed by questions.…read more

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Research has revealed that a number of factors can affect the accuracy of testimony given
by eyewitnesses to an event. These factors include obvious ones such as the physical
condition of the witness (drunk), the viewing conditions (clear or misty), the time
between the event and its recall, the significance of the event to the witness at the time
(didn't realise it was a bank robbery).…read more

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This means we may have very accurate recall of the central details
of what we witness, but less accurate recall of details on the periphery.
Human beings tend to become anxious in the presence of violence. Loftus and Burns
(1982) conducted an experiment showing how witnessing violence can reduce the
accuracy of memory. Participants were shown two filmed versions of a crime. The
second version included a violent incident.…read more


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