AQA AS Geography Population: Cities

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  • Created on: 22-08-13 19:24
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Urban areas can be divided into zones based on the major land use in each area.
In developed countries, as you move away from the town or city centre, the major urban
zones are: the inner city, the suburbs and the rural/urban fringe .
Each of these urban zones and the rural area beyond them has their own characteristics.
Geographers have put together models of land use to show how a 'typical' city is laid out.
One of the most famous of these is the Burgess or concentric zone model.
Why do people move to the city?
The hope of jobs and being able to earn money to send back to the
family living in the rural area
Shortage of land, food and opportunities in the rural area
The freedom from tradition that cities offer
The pull of the bright lights
War, natural disasters, etc. in rural areas
Better healthcare and education
Birth rates usually fall in the city because:
Education levels are higher
Children are less of an economic advantage
Large families can be a drag on economic progress
Death rates in the city are affected by:
The quality of housing ­ often poor when growth is rapid
Quality of water supply
Food supply
Health care
Quality of sewage treatment

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Burgess's Model
Basic Assumptions of the Model:
The city was built upon flat, isotropic surfaces
with equal advantages in all directions
Transport systems were of limited significance
being equally easy, rapid and cheap in every
Land values were highest in the city centre and
declined with distance outwards to give a zoning
of urban functions and land use
The oldest buildings were in or close to the city boundary with progressively newer
ones as you move outwards
Cities contained a variety of well-defined socio-economic…read more

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Case Study: Newcastle
Byker Ward An inner-city area to the east of the city centre
Jesmond Ward A suburb built mainly in the early 20th century
Castle Ward A suburb built mainly in the late 20th century and
is now expanding outwards
Longhorsley A village in Northumberland, 30 km away from Newcastle
Central Business District
Housing Flats and apartments
Very few people live here
Wealth Expensive land values
Employment Shops, banks, offices, businesses
Provision of services Department stores, banks, restaurants, cinema, library
Road and rail…read more

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Inner city
Housing High density terraced houses built in 19th century
Back to back houses closely packed with no gardens
High-rise block flats built in the 60's
Some old warehouses may have been redeveloped into
Wealth The poorest sections of the urban population tend to
live here
Cheap housing
Wealthy people living in redeveloped areas
Employment High proportion of students, unemployed and unskilled
or semi-skilled workers
Some young professionals living in redeveloped areas
Provision of services Today, often an area of urban decay with…read more

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Housing A mix of 20th century detached and semidetached
houses with gardens
Closer to the inner city
High proportion of properties will be council-owned
Further out, properties will be privately owned and
larger with garages and driveways
More space and more aesthetically pleasing
Wealth Increased personal wealth
People earning higher salaries
Managerial jobs
Employment More employment in tertiary sector
People with managerial jobs
Skilled workers
Provision of services Some local shopping parades
Good transport routes to city centre
Good availability of public transport
Ethnicity…read more

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Rural/Urban Fringe
Housing Low-density
High quality private housing
Higher density outer-city council estates
More space
Wealth Increased wealth
People with professional jobs
Employment Proportion employed in tertiary sector increases
Provision of services The location for out-of-town shopping complexes,
airports and recreational facilities such as golf courses
Ethnicity Decrease in ethnic minorities
Age More families with children
More elderly people
Case Study: Castle Ward
As Newcastle grew, it absorbed surrounding towns and villages, one of these being
Gosforth, now known as Castle Ward.…read more

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Rural Area
Housing Larger, privately owned housing and new estates with
privately owned houses
Wealth Wealthiest residents who've moved out of the city
Some less wealthy original rural residents
Employment High proportion of workers in professional and
managerial sectors
Agricultural workers
Provision of services Village shops may have closed as more residents shop in
urban areas on their commute to work
Lack of public transport facilities
Ethnicity Majorly white
Age Higher proportion of elderly people
Case Study: Longhorsley
Longhorsely lies in rural Northumberland.…read more


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