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Population Indicators
1. Birth Rate- number live births /1,000/year
2. Death Rate- number deaths/ 1,000/ year
3. Fertility Rate- av no children woman has between ages 15-44
4. Infant Mortality Rate- no children die before 1st bday/1,000
5. Migration Rate- diff between no people who immigrate and those who…

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Stage 5- Japan

Stage 1:
1. High BR- no birth control or fam planning + poor education
2. High BR as high IM so `replaced'
3. DR high and LE low as poor health care, sanitation + diet

Stage 2:
1. High BR- no birth control or fam planning +…

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2) Most LEDCs in stages 2-3
a) Lots countries S2 1950s e.g. Kenya + Bangladesh. Health up and sanitation up
so DR dropped with BR up. Many overpopulated- don't have resources to cope
b) Some former LEDCs S3 e.g. NICs e.g. Malaysia + Taiwan. DR dropping so total
population up…

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3) Doesn't take into account education + role of women- could affect BR e.g. if clever
may hold off children
4) Pop in countries with different customs may change differently e.g. Catholics= no
contraception so Italy may not fit
5) Extreme poverty and low development cause lack of pop growth…

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Emigration Away from a Country at later DTM Stages

Immigration into Countries at Later DTM Stages

Population vs Resources
Thomas Malthus 1798- "Essay on Principle of Population As it Affects
Future Improvement of Society"
1) English church minister
2) Pop grows geometrically (1,2,4,8,16,32...), food grows arithmetically (1,2,3,4,5,6...)
3) Would lead…

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4) Not true in 19th C. Pop grew butr food production grew too, due to:
a) Agricultural Revolution
b) Discovery + opening up to trade of new agricultural lands (e.g. N America)
5) His ideas were not forgotten (Boserup + Simon)

Esther Boserup 1956 "Necessity is the mother of invention"…

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Impacts of Population Change
Social Economic Political
Ageing 1) Increased pressure on 1) Reduced 1) Elderly issues
Population public services e.g. workforce- smaller will be
hospitals. proportion of pop important to
More people need to is working so slow voters e.g.
care for elderly, so economic growth changes to

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enough resources to 2) Increased poverty- teacher
cope with no of people. more young born salaries to
into poor fams- so encourage
more in pov. Some more into
may work to teaching
support fams, so
can't school so
can't break out of

Attempts to Manage Population change to Achieve…

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Case Studies of Attempts to Manage Population
1) 2000, pop 1.2bil (20% world) 1) First African country to develop pop
2) Article 25: "State promotes fam control policies
planning to make pop growth 2) In last 20, FR fallen from 8% to 4.4%
compatible with plan for and…


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