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Population Indicators
1. Birth Rate- number live births /1,000/year
2. Death Rate- number deaths/ 1,000/ year
3. Fertility Rate- av no children woman has between ages 15-44
4. Infant Mortality Rate- no children die before 1st bday/1,000
5. Migration Rate- diff between no people who immigrate and those who
6.…read more

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Stage 5- Japan
Stage 1:
1. High BR- no birth control or fam planning + poor education
2. High BR as high IM so `replaced'
3. DR high and LE low as poor health care, sanitation + diet
Stage 2:
1. High BR- no birth control or fam planning + poor education
2. High BR as all fam members work so bring in more money and more productive
3. DR falls and LE up due to healthcare, sanitation and diet improvements
Stage 3:
1.…read more

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Most LEDCs in stages 2-3
a) Lots countries S2 1950s e.g. Kenya + Bangladesh. Health up and sanitation up
so DR dropped with BR up. Many overpopulated- don't have resources to cope
b) Some former LEDCs S3 e.g. NICs e.g. Malaysia + Taiwan.…read more

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Doesn't take into account education + role of women- could affect BR e.g. if clever
may hold off children
4) Pop in countries with different customs may change differently e.g. Catholics= no
contraception so Italy may not fit
5) Extreme poverty and low development cause lack of pop growth and prevent LEDCs
passing through all stages
6) Can't predict when countries reach stages
7) Doesn't consider:
a) Migration
b) Population control policies e.g. Fracne + China
c) Infectious Diseases e.g.…read more

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Emigration Away from a Country at later DTM Stages
Immigration into Countries at Later DTM Stages
Population vs Resources
Thomas Malthus 1798- "Essay on Principle of Population As it Affects
Future Improvement of Society"
1) English church minister
2) Pop grows geometrically (1,2,4,8,16,32...), food grows arithmetically (1,2,3,4,5,6...…read more

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Not true in 19th C. Pop grew butr food production grew too, due to:
a) Agricultural Revolution
b) Discovery + opening up to trade of new agricultural lands (e.g.…read more

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Impacts of Population Change
Social Economic Political
Ageing 1) Increased pressure on 1) Reduced 1) Elderly issues
Population public services e.g. workforce- smaller will be
hospitals. proportion of pop important to
More people need to is working so slow voters e.g.
care for elderly, so economic growth changes to
training required. More 2) Increased taxes- pensions,
unpaid carers for fam pensions + heating
members, putting under services paid for by allowances
financial + social taxes. Greater 2) Immigration
pressure.…read more

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Increased poverty- teacher
cope with no of people. more young born salaries to
into poor fams- so encourage
more in pov. Some more into
may work to teaching
support fams, so
can't school so
can't break out of
Attempts to Manage Population change to Achieve Sustainable
Ageing Population Youthful Population
1) Encourage large fams (e.g. Swedish 1) Controlling BR- some overpopulated
govt gives both parents 18 months countries try slowing growth by
leave).…read more

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Case Studies of Attempts to Manage Population
1) 2000, pop 1.2bil (20% world) 1) First African country to develop pop
2) Article 25: "State promotes fam control policies
planning to make pop growth 2) In last 20, FR fallen from 8% to 4.…read more


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