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RIVERS: FLOODING - MEDC
· South Britain, July 2007
· Highest recorded rainfall for England and Wales since 1766
· Some areas registered over twice the long term average, 145mm Pershore, 120mm Brize Norton
· Early summer rainfall, saturated soils, high groundwater levels
· Intense rainfall, storms on July 20th, last day of school summer term
· Thousands motorists stranded on M5
· Flash floods in Gloucester, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire
· In Gloucester, 3 died, £25million damage to roads (entire annual council road budget), 45,000 homes without
power, 350,000 homes without water after water provider became flooded, 140,000 for over a week
· £3billion claimed in insurance
· £1billion damage cost to the water industry
· 50% crops in affected areas lost…read more

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RIVERS: FLOODING - LEDC
· Bangladesh, July, August 2004
· Delta land of Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers
· Spring snowmelt in river sources in Himalayas, and deforestation in Nepal (causing large amounts of sediment to move into the rivers) and heavy rain
during monsoons caused high river discharges
· Tropical revolving storms causing storm surges pushed water from the coast up the rivers, preventing water exiting river channels into the sea
· 70% Bangladesh less than 1m above sea level
· Urbanisation in Dhaka, home to 1 million
· GDP per capita $300, many living on subsistence farming, very poor, little taxes to fund flood defences
· 38% of land flooded, including 800,000 hectares of farm land
· 36 million (out of a population of 125 million) were made homeless
· 800 people died
· Dirty water spread disease, damage to infrastructure, all domestic and internal flights suspended throughout July
· $2.2 billion damage, 4% of total GDP
· The UN provided emergency relief such as blankets, medical aid, food, temporary shelters
· 5 year loan from World Bank to fund repairs and new flood defences and flood management plans
· Disaster preparedness plans, such as shelters on high ground and early warning systems…read more

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RIVERS: HARD ENGINEERING
· Three Gorges Dam, Yangtze River, China, 2009
· Generates hydroelectric power for 15 million
· Reduces flood risk for 13 million
· Cost £25 billion to build
· Forced resettlement of 1.2 million from several cities, 11 district centres and over 100
villages to newly built settlements, as close to former homes as possible
· Sediment transported by river halved between 1998 and 2004, causing increased erosion
downstream
· Dredging required to remove sediment from behind dam
· Afforestation needed to reduce the increased risk from landslides
· Disrupted habitats of species such as White Flag Dolphin…read more

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POPULATION: ANTI-NATALIST
POPULATION POLICY
· China one-child policy, 1979
· Family planning workers in every workplace, `granny police' in housing areas to encourage
women to use contraception and report pregnanices
· Successful in urban areas, but difficult to enforce in urban areas
· Led to practice of female infanticide, thousands of girl babies killed or `missing'
· `Little emperor syndrome' as entire family gave single child (most likely a boy) their entire
attention
· In 2001, Guangdong, the state capital of mountainous region Huaiji, ordered over 20,000
forced abortions and sterilisations
· By 2006 annual growth rate had fallen to 0.6%, but fertility rate was still 1.6
· Prevented 300 million births
· Policy relaxed in 2014, as if two parents were single children themselves, they could have
two children of their own…read more

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POPULATION: PRO-NATALIST
POPULATION POLICY
· Sweden, first policy in 1974, regularly edited and amended
· Each parent given 18 month leave, paid for by government
· Heavily subsidised public day care, flexible work schedules
· Women have high participation in work force
· Facing problems of under population, high dependency ratio, insufficient pension funds,
housing, transport, ageing population etc
· More funding put into child care and education
· Enough school places for children (not enough in London, big problem)
· Extensive support for single parents, but married parents get higher paid leave
· 900 euro benefit per year per child
· Total cost to state for parental benefits in 2011 was £3.2 billion
· Total cost to state for child care in 2010 was £6.4 billion…read more

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