AQA AS Geography population

This is the basics on population core topic

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  • Created on: 13-02-12 11:53
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Population
Distribution of Population
Introduction
The worlds population is growing at a rate of 2.7 people per second.
Population distribution is the way in which people are spread over an area.
Population density is the amount of people living in a specified area.
The distribution of the world's population is often attributed to several factors.
Physical Influences on the Distribution of Population
Relief
In areas of high population density, the land is often flat and low lying which encourages settlement
development.
Land like this is easier to build on and goods are easier to transport. In areas of low population
density, the land is often rugged, steep and high above sea level.
It is often extremely difficult to settle in areas of this style.
Climate
A climate which is not too extreme in either direction often encourages the greatest settlement
growth.
In areas of low population density, the climate is often either far too cold (e.g. Antarctica) or far too
hot (e.g. Sahara Desert).
Vegetation
If the vegetation is low lying; it is easy to remove so encourages settlement.
In areas of dense vegetation (e.g. the Amazon Rainforest) it is often difficult to settle.
Water
Access to a fresh supply of water is vital for determining the density of an areas population.
Where the water supply is good, high population densities will be found.
Where the water supply is poor, low population densities will be found.

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Soils
If the soil is rich and fertile; the population density is often high as people are able to yield good
crops.
If the soil is thin and unproductive, few people will live in the area.
Economic, Social & Political Influences
Economic
Some of the biggest growth regions in the UK, have grown as a result of the excellent economic
conditions.
A poorly developed economy is often unable to support large populations and people end up living
in poor housing (e.g. Brazil).…read more

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Death rates can also vary over space. This is due to the fact that countries in the majority of LEDC's
have poor access to good quality medical care and therefore the spread of disease is high.
However, in MEDC's the health care system is often more effective and this result in lower death
rates.
Many countries in Europe have now reached the stage where the population is rapidly ageing.…read more

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An example of a country at this stage would be Sri Lanka or Peru.
The death rates often fall due to medical breakthroughs and new hospital services opening.
Improvements may have also been made to accommodation or food and water supply.
Birth rates remain high for religious or cultural purposes and people are still not educated to using
contraception.
Stage 3
Birth rates now fall and death rates continue to fall.
Natural increase remains high and population growth is rapid.…read more

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Limitations
However, as with all theoretical models, the DTM does have its limitations and the model has failed
to predict several occurrences.
Firstly, the model failed to predict the falling birth rates in many MEDC countries.
Secondly, the model assumes that all countries will pass through the same four stages, however,
countries in Africa, for example, will never become industrialised.
And finally, countries such as Australia, USA and Canada, never went through the first stages as their
populations grew due to emigration.…read more

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They advertised for younger families as they felt that this would help encourage future population
growth.
They encouraged people to move by advertising the benefits such as no pollution, fresh air, crime
free and low taxes.
Migration
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.
People choose to migrate for a variety of reasons and migration can either be voluntary or forced.
Voluntary migration is when people choose to move for a better life.…read more

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Migration Impact on Countries
Migration has impacts on the source and host countries, as well as the migrants themselves.…read more

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Consequences for migrants
In a positive light, migration can lead to a better quality of life for migrants.
They may have a better job, larger homes and better access to services.
However, they may also become victims of racial discrimination or be forced to live in squalid
conditions.…read more

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