AQA AS Geography: Population

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  • Population
    • The DTM advantages & limitations
      • Advantages: General view of pop. change over time
      • Advantage: can judge a country's position and forecast future change
      • Based on the UK so might not be valid worldwide
      • Stage 5 had to be added
      • Doesn't consider factors such as role of women, education, and religious customs, migration
      • Extreme poverty may prevent a country moving through all stages
      • Doesn't consider pop. policies, disease, civil war
      • Suggests countries move at the same pace and only move forward
    • Ageing populations
      • Social: pressure on public services ie hospitals, carers
      • Social: unequal distribution of elderly, ie Eastbourne - inadequate facilities for youth
      • Social: Reduction in birth rate
      • Social: people may need to work longer to build up personal pension
      • Economic: reduced work force
      • EconomicL increased taxes to pay for pensions
      • Economic: the elderly will spend the 'grey pound'
      • Management
        • Encourage large families eg Swedish Gov. giving 18 months paid leave
        • Raise retirement age
        • Encourage immigration of working age people
      • CASE STUDY: THE UK
        • 16% of UK pop. were over 65 (2005)
        • due to: increased life expectancy, baby booms 1940/60 and falling birth rate
        • Pressure on pension system, elderly living in poverty, pressure on health service
        • retirement age will be increase to 68 by 2050
        • Unlimited immigration of countries within EU
        • Encounrage women to have children - women wont lose out on pensions if they have children
    • Youthful population
      • Social: greater deman for services ie  schools and childcare
      • Social: rapid poulation growth when children reach reproductive age
      • Management
        • Control birth rate eh China One Child policy prevented 300 million births
        • Limit immigration of reproductive aged people
        • Encourage family planning and contraception
      • Too few jobs for the youth - more need for gov. support
      • Increased poverty as children are born into poor families
    • Urban and rural
      • Inner City to Rural area
        • Housing: densely packed terraces to larger privately owned
        • Higher proportion of ethnic minorities in inner city
        • More youth in inner, more elderly in rural
        • Wealth increases as you move out of the city
        • Proportaion employed in tertiary sector increase as you move out
        • Services decrease as you move out
        • URBAN AND RURAL CASE STUDIES
          • Four areas in preston. Fishwick, Ashton, Lea, Longton
            • 60.5% privately owned houses in F 92.7% in Lo
            • 66.5% white in F, 99.2% white in Lo
            • 15.7% in pro/management sector in F 30.7 in Lo
          • Links to social welfare, ie general health, crime rates, education, debt

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