Charles and the Short and Long Parliaments

All notes for Charles and the Short and Long Parliament during his reign

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  • Created by: Zoe
  • Created on: 10-05-13 19:25
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  • Short and Long Parliament 1640-42
    • Short Parliament 1640
      • Led by Pym
      • Commons demanded that grievances were resolved before they granted voted on money
      • Laud stirred up anger in Parliament by issuing canons declaring    divine right
      • Charles simply dismissed Parliament rather than argue with them
    • Second Bishops War 1640
      • After Short Parliament has dissolved
      • Charles confiscated coinage in Tower of London and held £30,000 as a loan
        • Angered London Merchants and lost even more integrity in London
        • Seen as Charles's desperate measure
      • Scots capture Newcastle upon Tyme
        • Cut London's vital coal supply
        • Treaty of Ripon 1640
          • Utter humiliation for Charles
          • Scots secure £850 to stay in Newcastle
          • Charles could not afford to continue to pay Scots and so was forced to call Parliament for a second time
            • Election of Long Parliament
              • Forming of the Anti-Court Consensus
              • Most votes of any election ever in history
              • Country Gentry went to Parliament united with clear attitudes
                • Stop Church converting to Catholicism
                  • Reverse Laudian changes
                • Punish King's evil advisers
                  • Windibank, Portland, Laud and Strafford
                • Restore rights of subjects and king
                  • Currently it was semi-absolutist
                • Eliminate financial innovations
                  • Forest fines
                  • Ship Money
                • Remove Court of Wards
                • Eliminate Star Chamber
              • King was in a weak position
              • There was worry that this was the last hope to stopping a catholic, absolutist stane occuring
                • Fear of Strafford
              • Aim of MP's
                • Restore old constitution
                • Stop Catholic absolutism
    • Election of Long Parliament
      • Forming of the Anti-Court Consensus
      • Most votes of any election ever in history
      • Country Gentry went to Parliament united with clear attitudes
        • Stop Church converting to Catholicism
          • Reverse Laudian changes
        • Punish King's evil advisers
          • Windibank, Portland, Laud and Strafford
        • Restore rights of subjects and king
          • Currently it was semi-absolutist
        • Eliminate financial innovations
          • Forest fines
          • Ship Money
        • Remove Court of Wards
        • Eliminate Star Chamber
      • King was in a weak position
      • There was worry that this was the last hope to stopping a catholic, absolutist stane occuring
        • Fear of Strafford
      • Aim of MP's
        • Restore old constitution
        • Stop Catholic absolutism
    • First session of Long Parliament
      • Strafford
        • 1633 went to Ireland as Lord Deputy
          • Created obedience which had never been done before
            • Hated in Ireland
            • Feared in England
          • Irish Parliament reduced to voting taxes to support Strafford
          • Church remodeled   on Laudian lines
        • Impeached 1640
          • Charged for attempting to bring Irish army to England
            • His advice to Charles rebounded
        • Execution  1641
          • Act of Attainder used against him
            • This meant that less evidence was needed to try him
            • London Mob put Pressure on Commons to pass the Act
            • Passed under the impression that Charles would refuse to sign the Act
              • He did due to fear of uprising
      • Acts Passed
        • Ship Money illegal
        • Forest boundaries   changed to time of James's reign
        • Distrait of knighthood illegal
        • Court of Ward abolished
      • Triennial Act 1641
        • Declared Parliament must be called every 3 years
          • Another Act claimed that present Parliament dismissed on its own terms
        • Took away royal prerogative
        • Charles agreed
          • Agonized over Strafford
          • London Mob caused pressure
          • Saw Acts as temporary concessions
      • Ten Propositions 1641
        • Parliament could chose the Kings ministers
          • Took away royal prerogative
        • Why did Commons accept?
          • Pym presented them as defending laws already passed
          • Until Grand Remonstrance, members didn't understand Pym's position
          • Collapse of "moderate" Bedford made them seem as reasonable demand
          • Problem was "glossed over" by King as he went to visit Scotland
      • Root and Branch Petition
        • Abolition of bishops
        • Most wanted moderate Bishops, not to remove them
        • Pym gave isssue to committee as this would avoid a division in Commons
    • Second Session
      • Pym targets Henrietta Maria
        • Believed there was a Catholic conspiracy
      • Support for Charles "Constitutional Royalists"
        • Edward Hyde
        • Concern puritans would destroy the church
        • Worried Pym would lead to constitutional change
        • In order for constitution to work the King must be trusted
      • Grand Remonstrance
        • This broke apart the Anti-Court Consensus
        • Seen as propaganda
        • Reminded people of Charles's actions
        • Asserted that there was a Catholic Conspiracy
        • Justified Pym's revolutionary demands (Ten Propositions)
        • Consequences
          • Many were disturbed by Pym's use of London Mob to pressurize   people
          • When printed and published, conservatives were horrified - it included everyday people in politics
          • Pym was undermining social and political order
          • MP's disturbed by the public disorder as a result
      • Irish Rebellion 1641
        • Rebelled against Ulster Presbyterians - 4,000 killed
        • Claimed to be acting in Charles's name
        • Army was needed to stop them but Charles could not be trusted
        • Strengthened belief in Catholic conspiracy
      • Five members coup
        • Ordered   impeachment of Pym, Mandville, Strode, Haselrige and Holles
          • Thought to be plotting against Henrietta
        • 1642 entered commons to arrest them - breach of privilege
        • Made civil war more likley
        • Many MP's went back to Pym
        • King's departure from London,  separated sides
    • 1641 Scotland Treaty
      • Scottish royalists tried to capture covenant-er leaders
      • Ruined any chance of agreements

Comments

NZLHistory

Excellent resource that includes plenty of detail on the key political developments of 1640-2, including the main treaties and acts passed by parliament.

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