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Charles I and Parliament 1625-29 ­ Revision
Timeline of events
January ­ Mansfield Expedition fails.
March ­ James I dies. Accession of Charles I.
May ­ Charles marries Henrietta Maria.
June ­ Charles I's first parliament.
Commons attacks the promotion of Arminian clergy.
Tonnage and Poundage granted for one year only.
September ­ Cadiz expedition fails.
Charles I's second parliament
Buckingham tries to remove leading opponents in the Commons by having them appointed sheriffs.
June ­ Buckingham is impeached.
Charles dissolves parliament.…read more

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What kind of person was Charles I?
· Sensitive to criticism.
· Inflexible.
· Formal and reserved.
· Strong belief in Divine Right and his prerogative powers.
1625 Charles married Henrietta Maria, the daughter of Henry IV of France. Henrietta Maria was regarded as
influencing Charles towards Catholicism and absolutism = a negative political impact.…read more

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Five Knights case'. Some MPs argued that Charles was asserting his royal prerogative at the expense of
common law, others that the king was increasing his power.
The Petition of Right, June 1628
The Petition was in response to concerns that Charles could not be trusted to rule by the unwritten constitution.
Charles accepted that non-parliamentary taxation, martial law, the billeting of troops of civilians and
imprisonment without cause shown, were all contrary to the `laws and statutes of the realm'.…read more

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Charles I ­ Personal Rule 1629-1640
William Laud
William Laud ­ a leading Arminian in the 1620's, he had the patronage of Buckingham. While James acknowledged
his skill in debate he feared Laud might emulate the Dutch Arminians by stirring up controversy and undermine
the unity of the church.
Charles, however, wanted someone to impose discipline and uniformity in the way Bancroft had done.…read more

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Laud was committed to the C of E. He was no friend of the Queen and feared the influence of court Catholicism.
He persuaded Charles to issue a proclamation forbidding the spread of catholic belief in an attempt to curb
conversions. He also issued strict punishments for those who attended the Queen's chapel.
Administration & Finance
No minister, after 1628, monopolised the royal authority in the same way Buckingham had.…read more

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It was met with riots when first read at St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. The revolt spread and thousands rushed to
sign the National Covenant which they pledged to defend their system of worship.
Charles suspended the new service book but prepared to use force ­ called to arms the trained bands.…read more

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April 13-May 5, The Short Parliament.
August, The Scots defeat the English at Newburn, near Newcastle.
November 3, The Long parliament opens at Westminster.
December 11, The Root and Branch Petition is presented to parliament.
February, the Triennial Act.
March 22, the impeachment trial of Strafford begins.
April 10, the Bill of Attainder is introduced by the House of Commons.
May 7, the House of Lords passes the Bill of Attainder against Strafford.
May 10, Charles signs the Bill of Attainder.…read more

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The Long Parliament opened on 5 November 1640, in an atmosphere of excitement and optimism. Parliament
had the King over a barrel, raising expectations of political and religious reform.
Demands for religious reform: the Root and Branch Petition.
In December 1640, a petition signed by several thousand Londoners which called for the 'root and branch'
abolition of the bishops was presented to Parliament. MPs had strongly opposing views on the issue of religion.
The petition was taken no further.…read more

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Without Strafford and Laud to advise him, Charles was open to persuasion from men who urged him to take a
stand against his enemies. Charles' involvement in the `Army Plot' convinced the Lords to pass the Bill by 26 votes
to 19.
· The Army Plot brought the country to the brink of civil war. Crowds had gathered outside Whitehall. Charles
feared for the safety of his family.…read more


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