Charles: Failure of the Personal Rule, 1638-1640

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Situation in 1637

  • At the start of Charles reign he had everything under control.
  • Ship Money was coming in.
  • Polixy of throrough modernised administration.
  • Ireland was under control and Laud effectively eliminated opposition
  • He was becoming financially independent, didn't need Parliament.
  • But he wanted to extend reform to his other kingdoms shows he lacked political awareness.
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Scottish rebellion, 1637-39

  • Charles had Strafford supress any resistance in Ireland. Irish Catholics had religious freedom to an extent.
  • But, Scotland had strength and independence with the Presbyterian Kirk/Church, it was free from the King and bishops. 
  • James I wanted links with Scotland, wanted Bishops in office only to advise, not to change belief. 
  • Charles was less tact than James, in 1621 James withdrew from imnposing the English prayer book due to making opposition.
  • 1637, Charles wanted new Prayer Book like in England to be put in Scottish Churches in Edinburgh.
  • This was done without telling the Scottish Parliament/Kirk Assembly.
  • Once read by a Bishop in St Giles Cathedral, Bishops were attacked and the Prayer book was opposed.
  • Riots were caused because of the Book and how it was implamented.
  • But Charles wanted his orders carried out, Scottish clergy and nobles united in anger.
  • 1638 , Those against Charles united to sign a document known as Covenant to protect the Kirk.
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The First Bishop War 1637-39

  • Charles rose an army to stop the rebellion.
  • He lacked money to raise a well skilled army, relied on English support.
  • Nobility didn't want to fight, the JPs were to busy with collecting Ship Money.
  • Militia was local and men didn't want to leave homes.
  • Scots felt their religion and culture was being attacked by an Anti-Christ like Charles.

TREATY OF BERWICK, 1639:

  • Scots were allowed to decide own religious settlement.
  • They abolished the Prayerbook and Bishops in Scotland.
  • Charles opposed this, and merchant refused to give money for new army.
  • Charles was struggling, he called Thomas Wentworth (Strafford) back from Ireland to help.
  • He advised him to call Parliament hoping the anti-Scot feeling would aid Charles.
  • The war caused all of Charles financial gains to be wiped out.
  • When things didn't go well he said "You have an army in Ireland you may use to reduce this Kingdom". This would affect him later.
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The Short Parliament, April 1640

  • He need money to stop the crises he created.
  • Parliament only lasted for a month and nothing was met.
  • Key figures in the HofL were Saye, Sele and Lord Montague.
  • Key figures in the HofC werer John Pym and Nathaniel Fiennes.
  • They were in touch with the Scottish army and if Charles had known they'd be charged for treason.
  • It's like they wanted Charles to dissolve Parliament.
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The Second Bishop's War, June 1640

  • Charles was still determined to assert his authority.
  • he was stubborn and lacked political awareness.
  • He borrowed from Catholics and used Catholci officers.
  • The English was was unmatched for the Scots, they entered England and took over Newcastle, rich in coal which helped keep London warm in the winter.

TREATY OF RIPON, OCTOBER 1640:

  • Charles agreed to pay Scottish army whilst they occupied England.
  • Scottish wouldn't leave until Charles called Parliament.
  • He delayed talks for ending the war.
  • Charles then knew he had to call another Parliament which would be known as the 'Long' Parliament.
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