AS History Germany key idea 4

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  • KI3- Economic & Social Policies
    • Schachts New Plan: 1934-1936
      • strict controls so gov could limit imports. special supervisory offices set up to monitor. Bilateral trade with Balkan and S.American states, paid for by Reichmarks. investment in construction.
        • S: increased imports from s.america and s.e.Europe.
          • F: as rearmament increased, more imports required. not enough foreign exchange to fund doubling of copper imports by Defence ministry.
        • Goerings 4 year plan, 1936
          • aim: to create total war economy.had 6 departments: labour force, agricultural production, prod of raw materials, and distribution, foreign exchange matters and price supervision. aimed to increase prod in synthetic rubber.
            • S: 83% self sufficiency in agriculture by 1939. effectively subordinated the labour and agricultural depart.- large plants built. 19388: plan officies took over Austrian iron steel and machines. total war economy achieved in 1944.
              • F: targets not met. imports draining. synthetic prod not cost effective: required 6 tons of coal to make 1 ton of oil. Guns vs Butter: too focused on butter.
  • Public works:
    • KI3- Economic & Social Policies
      • Schachts New Plan: 1934-1936
        • strict controls so gov could limit imports. special supervisory offices set up to monitor. Bilateral trade with Balkan and S.American states, paid for by Reichmarks. investment in construction.
          • S: increased imports from s.america and s.e.Europe.
            • F: as rearmament increased, more imports required. not enough foreign exchange to fund doubling of copper imports by Defence ministry.
          • Goerings 4 year plan, 1936
            • aim: to create total war economy.had 6 departments: labour force, agricultural production, prod of raw materials, and distribution, foreign exchange matters and price supervision. aimed to increase prod in synthetic rubber.
              • S: 83% self sufficiency in agriculture by 1939. effectively subordinated the labour and agricultural depart.- large plants built. 19388: plan officies took over Austrian iron steel and machines. total war economy achieved in 1944.
                • F: targets not met. imports draining. synthetic prod not cost effective: required 6 tons of coal to make 1 ton of oil. Guns vs Butter: too focused on butter.
    • State funded building of large projects
      • Autobahns, railways, housing, 1936 olympics
        • -employment, stimulate econ, easy movement of troops.
          • s:2,000 miles of autobahns by 1938
            • F: costly, labour intensive. planning inefficent - dual state with railways.
  • State funded building of large projects
    • Autobahns, railways, housing, 1936 olympics
      • -employment, stimulate econ, easy movement of troops.
        • s:2,000 miles of autobahns by 1938
          • F: costly, labour intensive. planning inefficent - dual state with railways.
  • Conscription
    • unemployed young were employed temporarily by organisations
      • Voluntary Labour Service
        • May 35, all 18 yr old men forced in compulsory military service
          • Law for reduction of unemployment- women were removed from labour market.
            • A billion Reichmarks invested in public works schemes.
              • motor industry aided by tax concessions- march-june 33- motor industry employees increased 40%
                • Length of working week shortened in order to employ more people.
          • 18-25 males to serve for 2 years.
            • Prestige: breaks TOV. benefits: housing + higher rations after 39.
  • Autarky:Self Sufficiency
    • in industry, agriculture, clothing
      • 83% ss in agric 1939
        • synthetic prod-Goering.
          • expansion: Lebensraum.
            • 1938 Austria + Sudetenland
            • 1939 Czecho, Poland
              • 1940 France ect
                • 1941 Russia
    • NEVER ACHIEVED
  • Policy towards workers
    • National Socialist peoples welfare
      • 1933 Nazis took control of charities
        • Only Aryan race included in regime
          • 39- had 17 m members
            • extensive network of nurseries 4 kids. holiday homes 4 mothers
            • Gestapo scared alcoholics and shy workers
      • SUCCESS
    • Plant Leaders
      • given more power
      • Workers forced to join labour front
        • Elected councils of Trust
          • F: ended 1935 elections coz workers elected representatives who nazis considered "politically unreliable".
            • cud tk emploer 2 court of social honour officials app by ministry of labour
              • only 616 cases out of workforce of 20 million
          • FAILURE
  • Beauty of Work scheme
    • Policy towards workers
      • National Socialist peoples welfare
        • 1933 Nazis took control of charities
          • Only Aryan race included in regime
            • 39- had 17 m members
              • extensive network of nurseries 4 kids. holiday homes 4 mothers
              • Gestapo scared alcoholics and shy workers
        • SUCCESS
      • Plant Leaders
        • given more power
        • Workers forced to join labour front
          • Elected councils of Trust
            • F: ended 1935 elections coz workers elected representatives who nazis considered "politically unreliable".
              • cud tk emploer 2 court of social honour officials app by ministry of labour
                • only 616 cases out of workforce of 20 million
            • FAILURE
    • Headed by Albert Speer attempted to persuade employers to make factories a more humane environment
      • -pools, baths, showers, canteens
        • 1939 70,000 companies complied
    • SUCCESS
  • 1944 60 hours per week
    • Abolition of overtime and repression of foreign workers-brutalized.
  • "Strength through Joy"
    • Volkswagen
      • one of most pop projects start 1938
        • Workers offered saving scheme to purchase car
          • 1940- 300,000 signed  up
            • FAILURE:prod halted by war. no cars given
    • KDF: SUCCESS
      • leisure organi
        • aim 2 remov boredom from workers
          • organ concets,cruises, plays
  • Camps of educ 4 work
    • Full employment was hitlers "sole gift to the the masses"
      • concessions 4 overtime + xmas bonus
      • Final deterance was terror of Gestapo- most brutal
  • Policy Towards Women
    • League of German Girls
      • nattional socialist womanhood + german womens enterprise
        • targeted mothers schools which ran courses in household management
  • German Labour Front: july 34 under Gertrud Scholtz -
    • Policy Towards Women
      • League of German Girls
        • nattional socialist womanhood + german womens enterprise
          • targeted mothers schools which ran courses in household management
    • -carried out similar policies restricting number of hours women could work in factories
  • Propaganda Campaign
    • aimed at rasing the status of mothers + housewives within the peoples community
  • Motherhood Cross
    • Gold medal awarded for 8 kids
      • 6= SIlver
        • 4= Bronze
    • Advised to giv up smokin + makeup
  • 1933 financial inducements were offered to persuade marred women to give up their jobs
    • women from high ranking jobs medicine, solicitors were dismissed.
  • Minister of Inferior jan 34
    • ruled that the prop of girls entering high educ should b 10% of male graduates
  • 1937 women recruited in industrial plants set up under 4 yr plan
  • Nov 1937, only unemployed women eligable for marriage loan
  • May 1939 12.7 women were in employment made up 37% of german workforce
  • women doctors, lawyers increased from 5% in 1930 to 7.6% in 39 - required for war
    • Failure: initial success 1937-38.  however womens role in workforce continually alternated and messed statistics
      • success: birthrate increased by 40% from 33 to 37. but this was just as likely to have been a cuae of the depression as it was a result of nazi policies
    • women: kinde kirche kuche from 1933
    • Education
      • Youth
        • Adolf Hitler Schools  set up 1937
          • failure: only 10 opened by 1945
            • success: most effective way of transforming germanys youth. by 36, 60% of young part of it . compulsory in 1939
              • Controlled males and femals 10-18.
                • german  girls; taught domestic skills.
                  • 1942 600,000 boys and 1,400,000 girls helped with war harvest.
        • Untitled
        • FAILURE:young people formed alternate groups: 'swing movement' + 'Edelweiss pirate group'.
      • Nazis ensured school syllabuses + teachers enforced ideology
      • April 33, law for reestablishment of civil service used to remove politically unreliable peeps
        • May 36, National socialist teachers league became responsible for political indoctrination of teachers
      • Success: Nazi views enforced
        • syllabuses revised, more teaching in history, biology and german
          • Failure: no change to uni structure as teachers saw it as irrelevant to their subjects
    • Racial Policy
      • HOLOCAUST INFO
      • 500,000 jews in germany 1933
        • boycott of jewish businesses
          • Removed jews from the civil service and journalism
            • 1935 Nurembourg Laws: removes citizenship from jews
              • 1938 legal prosecution kristallnacht, destruction of jewish property. kids expelled from schools.
                • 1939 Poland invaded: 3m jews.
                  • establishment of Ghettos: areas forced to live
                  • 1941 Russia invaded 3 million more jews
                    • 1942 Wannsee conference 'final solution'. kill jews
                      • FAILURE: conflicts with economic aims waste of labour
                        • Racial Policy
                          • HOLOCAUST INFO
                          • 500,000 jews in germany 1933
                            • boycott of jewish businesses
                              • Removed jews from the civil service and journalism
                                • 1935 Nurembourg Laws: removes citizenship from jews
                                  • 1938 legal prosecution kristallnacht, destruction of jewish property. kids expelled from schools.
                                    • 1939 Poland invaded: 3m jews.
                                      • establishment of Ghettos: areas forced to live
                                      • 1941 Russia invaded 3 million more jews
                                        • 1942 Wannsee conference 'final solution'. kill jews
                                          • FAILURE: conflicts with economic aims waste of labour
      • VOLKSGEMEINSCHAFT: peoples community
        • aim of nazi social policy was to create a community united by a love of and pride in Germany
        • excluded jews, communists, homos, gypsies
      • AIMS: AUTARKY, FULL EMPLOYMENT AND TOTAL WAR ECONOMY
      • MITTELSTAND
        • small shopkeepers hated big department stores
          • 1933 stormtroopers attacked big jewish depart stores
            • FARMERS
              • had received more help
                • 1932 agriculture employed 29% of pop
                  • 25% more productiv by 1939

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