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AS History ­ From Second Reich to Third Reich: Germany 1918 ­ 45

Effects of WW1 on Germany.
Germany expected a quick victory so her economy was not prepared when it turned out to be a
lengthy war. Conditions in Germany were becoming worse and worse, raw materials needed to…

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The German revolution

The Revolution From Above ­ (replacement of current emperor with civilian government).

It was clear that a new government was necessary because they had not been successful in winning
the war. More importantly, the people of Germany had been led to believe by their government that

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November. Recognising that Germany's socialists were now in control, a new six-man government
made up exclusively of socialists then came into office. Friedrich Ebert was its most influential
member. However this was only an interim government (intervening for a period because it is
after all, no one had elected…

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state controlled by the working class and its representatives. The moderates (SPD) then suggested a
national assembly (elected people who form laws). In order to do this a constitution would need to
be drawn up (principles on how a state is governed). A conference was set up which contained all…

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armistice, so they could no longer rely on them to stop a spartacist revolt.
2) Germany was suffering from widespread hunger (allies blockaded food) which they could seek to

50, 000 Spartacists revolted, led by Karl Luxemburg and Rosa Liebknecht. Recognising the army's
unreliability, the government had to make…

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Ruled by the Kaiser (Emperor) who President (At the moment-Ebert) Elected every
appointed/dismissed government and could 7 years. Appoints/dismisses Chancellor (looks
dissolve the Reichstag. He controlled the after finances) Could dissolve Reichstag and
armed forces and Germanys affairs with other arrange for new elections. Commands the army
countries. and in…

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but could be used as a very dangerous weapon if fallen into the wrong hands e.g. Hitler. (But at this
point he was only a chancellor so could not use it yet).

Democracy in crisis, 1919-1923

In the early years of the Weimar republic the extreme right got its power…

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Territorial provisions on Germany's western border ­ Alsace Lorraine given back to France. Rhineland
was demilitarised and the western part was occupied by allied military forces for 15 years (make
sure Germany was not re-militarising) Saar coalfields given to France for 15 years, would
compensation for the temporary loss and…

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triggered the first right-wing attempt to overthrow the Republic by force. Before the treaty was
drawn up Germany's armed forces totalled more than half a million ­ 250, 000 in the Free Corps and
the rest in the regular army - huge cuts had to be made in order for…

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Crisis of 1923 ­ Hyperinflation

Germany were feeling the effects of high inflations after WW1. Especially as the treaty of Versailles
had forced Germany to pay £6, 600 billion in reparations. In 1921 Germany had paid £50 million but in
1922 she had paid nothing. Instead Germany was trying…


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