environment

  • Created by: Elle99
  • Created on: 22-11-17 16:42
View mindmap
  • environmental effects on body systems
    • Altitude
      • the height or elevation of an area above sea level
        • as altitude increases, barometric pressure decreases
          • partial pressure of o2 decreases
            • at rest ppo2 in deoxygenated blood arriving to the alveoli is 40 mmHg
            • greater altitude, greater negative impact on diffusion gradient
              • at sea level po2= 159     DG to capillary blood = 119
              • at 3600m po2=105 DG to capillary blood= 65
                • 45% reduction
              • 8800m pp02=43 DG to capillary blood= 3
                • gradient less steep
                  • gaseous exchange slower and less efficient
                    • hypoxia
                      • condition where respiring tissue is deprived of adequate o2
                    • less o2 combines with haemoglobin
                      • haemoglobin not fully saturated
                • effect on sub max work
                  • performance deteriorates
                  • detraining/ reversibility
                  • decreased VO2 MAX
                  • Early fatigue
                  • early lactate threshold& OBLA
      • what coaches do
        • prepare for performance at altitude
          • 4 weeks optimal for altitude training
            • acclimatisation
              • when an athlete gradually adapts to a change in their environment
                • time constraints
                  • 3-5 days- low
                  • 1-2 weeks moderate
                  • 2+ weeks high
                  • 4 weeks extreme
            • benefits on CV & SV
              • release of EPO increases within 3 hrs, peaking 24-48 hrs
                • increase RBC production
                  • within 6 weeks exposure to 4,540m concentrationRBC increased by 14%
              • breathing rate and ventilation stabilise, remain elevated at rest and exercise
              • sv and Q reduce as o2 extraction more efficient
              • reduced incidence of altitude sickness, teaches, breathlessnes
        • allow extra time and practice
        • increase work:relief ratios
        • more frequent substitutions
        • supplement o2 on sidelines
        • IHT
      • beneficial for sprint events
        • long jump, triple jump
        • air is thinner, less air resistance
          • anaerobic not effected
            • don't use o2
            • some: FOG muscle fibres deteriorate due to lactic acid (football, 800m)
          • FG fibres improve
        • mexico- 1968 2340m world records
    • HEAT
      • thermoregulation
        • process of maintaining internal core temp
          • 37
          • thermorecepters detect change in temp
            • vasoconstriction
            • vasodilation
          • sweat
            • cooling effect on body
            • removes excess heat quickly
            • can lead to fluid loss
            • after exercise : loose 2-3 litres per hour
              • decreases blood volume
                • dehydration
                  • impair body ability to thermoregulate and core temp will rise
        • heat loss
          • rate of heat loss through sweating
            • humidity
              • low  = increase sweating
              • high= increased sweating
          • hyperthermia
            • significant raised body temp
            • common: athlete pushes themselves, too long, too hot and humid conditions
              • cardiovascular drift
                • increased rate of muscular contraction and chemical reactions
                  • produce metabolic heat
                    • not removed quick enough to maintain body core temp
                • upward drift in HR during sustained stead star activity associated with an increase in body temp
                  • 1 celcius = HR by 10bpm

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Acquiring movement skills resources »