The Female Reproductive System

  • Created by: cleojoy
  • Created on: 17-06-18 17:35
Ovaries
Produce and release eggs into the female reproductive tract at the midpoint of each menstrual cycle ready for fertilisation. It is the process of ovulation. They also produce the hormones oestrogen and progesterone.
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Fallopian tube
a woman has 2 fallopian tubes, they carry a womans egg from the ovaries to the uterus. The egg is fertilised in the fallopian tube and then moves to the uterus which is where it continues to grow until birth.
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Uterus
This is also known as the womb and is responsible for the development of the embryo during pregnancy. Its main function is to nourish the foetus until its ready for birth.
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Cervix
The lower part of the uterus that is made of strong muscles. Its main function is to allow the flow of menstrual blood from the uterus to the vagina and direct the sperm into the uterus during intercourse.
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Vagina
The canal that joins the cervix to the outside of the body and can also be know as the birth canal. It also receives the penis during sexual intercourse.
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The menstrual cycle
The process of ovulation and menstruation in females. It lasts around 28 days and is controlled by hormones.
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Fertilisation
A male and female gamete join together which occurs following sexual intercourse. The sperm and ovum untie in fertilisation creating a zygote that implants on the uterus walls.
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the first trimester of pregnancy
1-12 weeks. the mother is likely to experience symptoms such as morning sickness as there are lots of changes occurring in the body.
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The second trimester of pregnacy
13-27 weeks. At this point the side affects will have disappeared as the woman's body will have adjusted to the change in hormones The foetus will be between 3 and 5 inches long.
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The third trimester of pregnancy
28-40 weeks. The baby will now kick and stretch and can respond to light and sound. The mothers body will start preparing for birth.
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Stage one of Birth
the woman begins having contractions that cause the cervix to change and widen it becomes 'dilated' and thins.This is active labour where the cerivx begins to dialate more rapidly. The contractions are longer, stronger and closer together.
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Stage two of Birth
This stage begins when the mother is fully dilated and ends with the birth of the baby.
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The third stage of Birth
This begins straight after birth and then ends with the delivery of the placenta.
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Causes of female infertility- Pelvic inflammatory disease
PID is an infection of the upper female genital tract including thew womb, fallopian tubes and ovaries. ti can often be caused by STI's such as chlamydia. It can cause permanent damage to the fallopian tubes and uterus leading to infertility.
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Causes of female infertility- cervical cancer
The treatments of cervical cancer can affect a woman's infertility making it harder for her to get pregnant.
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Diagnosing female infertility- blood tests
Blood tests can check a womans blood for the hormone progesterone to check whether she is ovulating.
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Diagnosing female infertility- Ultrasound
Can be used to check a womans ovaries, womb and fallopian tubes to make sure they are in good condition. It also looks for signs that the fallopian tubes may be blocked to stop the eggs travelling.
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Diagnosing female infertility- Hysterosalpingography
(HSG) is a radiographic procedure to investigate the shape of the uterine cavity and the shape of the fallopian tubes. It injects a radio-opaque material into the cervical canal so that blockages can be seen.
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Diagnosing female infertility- Laparooscopy
this invloves making a small cut into a persons lower stomach so that a thin tube and camera can be inserted to examine a persons womb, fallopian tubes and ovaries. A coloured dye may also be injected to highlight any blockages.
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Treatments of female infertility- IVF
this is a medical procedure where an egg is fertilised by a sperm in a test tube. Hormone therapy is given to the woman 2 weeks before her treatment and is given fertility drugs to stimulate egg production. The eggs are removed just before ovulation.
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IVF- Egg retrieval
The egg is removed surgically before ovulation. A needle is inserted through the abdominal wall to extract them under local anaesthesia. Once retrieved the man will produce a semen sample.
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IVF- Fertilisation
The eggs are inspected by the professionals for their quality and only the best eggs are used for the better chance of developing an embryo. The sperm is also separated from the semen and then active sperm will be joined with the eggs in a lab dish
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IVF- Embryo Formation
A pre- embryo formation is confirmed by a visual inspection from the specialist. They are retrained in nutrient fluid for the next 2-3 days to see if they develop further.
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IVF- Implantation
A catheter is used to transfer the embryos through the cervix to the womans uterus. 2-3 fertilised eggs are implanted to improve the success rate.
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IVF- 7 Impacts of the process
cost, stress, intrusiveness of the procedure, Risk of multiple births, increase in birth defects, risk of miscarriage, ethical issues
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Treatments of female infertility- Fertility medicines
prescribed to women to help with ovulation but can also be provided to men, however they can cause nausea, vomiting and headaches.
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Treatments of female infertility- Lifestyle changes
Stop smoking, do a healthy diet
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a woman has 2 fallopian tubes, they carry a womans egg from the ovaries to the uterus. The egg is fertilised in the fallopian tube and then moves to the uterus which is where it continues to grow until birth.

Back

Fallopian tube

Card 3

Front

This is also known as the womb and is responsible for the development of the embryo during pregnancy. Its main function is to nourish the foetus until its ready for birth.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The lower part of the uterus that is made of strong muscles. Its main function is to allow the flow of menstrual blood from the uterus to the vagina and direct the sperm into the uterus during intercourse.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The canal that joins the cervix to the outside of the body and can also be know as the birth canal. It also receives the penis during sexual intercourse.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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